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Chinese Language Forums - Chinese Etymology Institute • View topic - 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation
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《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Sat Mar 01, 2014 7:40 pm
by Tienzen
《論 語》 全 文

Confucius --- the Analects

Translated by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

Image



Copyright © February 2014 by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Sat Mar 01, 2014 7:43 pm
by Tienzen
Preface:

This translation is intended for Westerns who know no Chinese language to learn the great thoughts of Confucius while without losing any bit of information during the translation. Thus, this translation has three special points.
First, for some unique Chinese concepts (such as, 仁, 義, 禮, 孝, 德, 耻, 道, 君 子, 小 人, etc.), they will not be translated but will be explained either in a note or in a parenthesis.


Second, there is no reason to translate the names (either of persons, places or states); of course, they will be explained if needed. With the original Chinese names, the readers can google them if they are interested in learning more about those ancient people and places.


Finally, the meaning of a Chinese sentence is often unable to be wholly expressed with English grammatical structure. Thus, the translation will basically keep the Chinese sentence structure (that is, the English grammatical rules are not strictly followed) while the basic requirement is that it must be understandable by all English readers. There are also some cases that the direct translation will make the English sentences look stupid (if not outright being nonsense). In such cases, I will paraphrase them instead of translating them directly or indirectly.


Now, most (99.9999…%) of Chinese college graduates do not read 論 語 in its entirety, and they are unable to understand most of the sayings even they want to read them now, as they are no longer familiar with those Chinese grammar. As this English translation can be understood by a foreigner, it can be a great study guide for native Chinese when they have difficulties while reading the 論 語 in its original (Chinese) text.


Confucius defined himself as 述 而 不 作, that is, he was only an editor and a teacher of the ancient thoughts, not a revolutionary thinker. He indeed kept up this description. Thus, we must first be familiar with the ancient thoughts in order to understand his teaching, and this web page (http://www.chinese-word-roots.org/Confuciu.htm ) can provide an introduction for this. I, however, will give a very brief description here. The Confucian metaphysics consists of two parts.
a. Heaven and Earth --- the source of all ‘virtues’ which are the powers and forces ruling this universe.
b. Human --- the only creature who is able to ‘participate’ in and with the Heaven/Earthly virtues, and this participation becomes human morality.


That is, the core of Confucianism is about the human morality (仁, 義, 禮, 孝, 廉, 耻, etc.) while the human morality is totally based on the Heaven/Earthly virtues (which includes, 命, 性, 道, 德, etc.). Now, I will give some brief explanations on these terms, and thus those terms will not be translated.

1. 命 (ming) --- is 口 (mouth) + 令 (decree). ‘口 令’ also means ‘password’. In the battle field, those who do not know the ‘口 令’ will be killed on the spot. So, 命 means decree from above (Heaven) or ‘living’ (not killed). Thus, in Confucianism, 命 has two meanings, the decree of heaven (天 命)and the ‘fate’ (人 命)of human. Of course, the fate of man is definitely depended on the decree of heaven.
2. 性 --- is 心 (the human heart) + 生 (birth), that is, the growth from the ‘heart’ (from within) without the contamination from the without. Thus, 性 comes out directly from 天 命 (the decree and the virtues of Heaven/Earth).
3. 道 --- is 首 (head) over 之 (walking). As the head always leads the way of going, 道 is the ‘pathway’ for the 命 and 性. In physics sense, 道 is the rules and laws which govern all pathways.
4. 德 --- is 彳 (action) + 十 (perfect or complete) + 四 (a variant of 网, net) + 一 (one) + 心 (heart). Thus, 德 is doing an ‘action’ with one-heartily attention. 德 is, in fact, a neutral word. When one does bad thing one-mindedly, it is bad. But, when one does 道 (the Heavenly ways) one-mindedly, it is great virtue. Thus, 德 seldom uses as a standalone word but is often placed behind a word of virtue. Now, 德 itself means virtue.
5. 仁 --- is 人 (man) + 二 (two), literally means two men. When there is only one man, we can do anything without the concern about others. When there are two men, one must respect the “other’s” existence. So, 仁 is simply respecting others. 仁 by all means is not ‘love’ (愛) which is powered by selfishness. In Confucianism, man can love (with selfishness) everything but must respect (仁) other ‘people’. In today’s terminology, ‘human right’ is unalienable from birth. Yet, 仁 is a moral demand for every person to respect other’s dignity which goes far beyond any unalienable right, as the 仁 is in fact the unalienable ‘obligation’ and responsibility of every individual. Thus 仁 becomes the gold standard for government, not just observing unalienable human rights but ensuring all people’s happiness and wellbeing. 仁 is the hard core of Confucianism.
6. 義 --- is 羊 (sheep) over 我 (a person, self). When one carries a sheep on his shoulder, that sheep must be his property, not a stolen one. So, 義 means proper conduct or righteous.
7. 禮 --- is 示 (message from above, mainly the gods) + 豊 (the rich offerings). So, 禮 is the Confucian liturgy, the proper conducts during the rituals. And, it became the way of lifestyle.
8. 樂 --- is two 幺 (small) + 白 (meaning 100 or many here) + 木 (tree or wooden). So, 樂 symbolizes a collection of hundreds of small wooden pieces, such as a set of music instruments. 樂 (music and dancing) is a very important ‘part’ of 禮, and it is often noted as 禮 樂. Yet, the spirit of 樂 is about happiness, so it also connotes as happiness. From here, it now can also mean ‘loving of something’. Thus, when 樂 represents a part of 禮 樂, it will not be translated. For the meanings of happiness and loving of something, it will be translated accordingly.
9. 孝 --- the top radical is the root for 老 (the elder) + 子 (child). 孝 (the filial piety) is about the way that how a child should treat his/her parents. 孝 is definitely not ‘love’ which can be expressed wholly from ‘heart’ without any rules and definite actions. Confucian 孝 is defined with some definite rules and actions. This is a virtue asked many times by his students in 論 語.
10. 廉 --- is 广 (house) over 兼 which is the fusion of 秉 秉 while 秉 (holding) is 彐 (hand) + 禾 (grains). So, 秉, hand holding grains, is working. 兼, two 秉, is working twice as hard. 廉 is a household working twice as hard, as a virtue of hard working and thriftiness.
11. 耻 --- is 耳 (ear) + 止 (stop). ‘忠 言 逆 耳’ (being difficult to admit one’s own fault) is the problem for most Chinese. Thus, when one hear (耳) his fault, he stops (止) doing it right the way, he knows about the shame. 耻 is knowing about the shame.
12. 君 子 --- Those who upkeep Confucian morality.
13. 小 人 --- those who do not care for the Confucian morality but put ‘interest’ as the first priority.


Then, what does 論 語 mean? Superficially, it is not a book of essays but is a collection of some sayings (sentences). Thus, it is a kind of analects. But, 論 語 has precise meaning in Chinese.
言 is saying of a subordinate to his superior, such as 諫言 (low to high). Now, it becomes a neutral term, just ‘saying’.
示 is saying from high to low.
話 is 言 (saying) + 舌 (tongue); that is, rumbling or mumbling with mouth and tongue.
語 is 言 + 吾 (self); that is, speaking to the same ‘rank’, such as colleagues.
論 is 言 + 侖 (consensus) which is 合 (unite) over 册 (book). When consensus is putting in book, it is 侖. Thus, 論 is about collecting the consensus sayings, that is, discussing or debating while reaches a consensus which is marked in stone.


So, literally, 論 語 is the discussions of consensus (mainly about the Chinese morality) with the colleagues (among teacher and students or student to students). The hard core of that discussion is all about 仁 which is the moral ‘obligation and responsibility’ of every person to care for “others’” human rights and wellbeing. Yet, how to carry out this moral obligation? This is the hard core of the 論 語, and thus the word of 仁 was repeated 109 times (the highest than any other ‘moral’ key words). Then, Confucius gave four pathways for the expressing of 仁 in this moral system.
1. 孝 (repeated 19 times) is the 仁 for parents, the source of one’s life.
2. 忠 (repeated 18 times) is the 仁 for the society, the source of one’s lively hood. As the society is always led by a ruler, this 忠 is often expressed toward to the ruler.
3. 信 (repeated 37 times) is the 仁 toward to ‘friends’.
4. 義 (repeated 24 times) is the 仁 toward to any issue (events or circumstances).


These four are the expressions (or pathways) for 仁 from one’s inner heart and actions. Then, there are external ‘regulations’ from the society to regulate people’s way of living regardless of he being achieving the 仁 or not. The ontological source for this regulation is 祭 (repeated 14 times) which is the connecting to the Heaven (source of the moral virtues) and the ancients (source of one’s life). The way of conducting the 祭 is 禮 (repeated 75 times) and 樂 (repeated 48 times).

Yet, there is a negative force acting upon the above moral system, and it is 利 (repeated 11 times). Those who take 利 ahead of the above moral obligation are called 小 人 (repeated 24 times). Those who uphold the moral obligation are called 君 子 (repeated 108 times) and 贤 (repeated 25 times).

Then, there are four litmus tests for distinguishing the 君 子 from 小 人, and they are:
a. 廉 (repeated 3 times), the one who is 廉 will not care for the 利.
b. 耻 (repeated 20 times), the one who is 耻 will be able to right his wrong.
c. 敬 (repeated 22 time), the one who is 敬 (sincere) will be able to control his desire.
d. 學 (repeated 66 times), the one who 學 (learning) can advance himself. Yet, someone can learn something bad too. Thus, 學 is not a term of morality.


The following words are neutral (not a term of morality) in 論 語.
A. 愛 (repeated 9 times), liking or loving of something. It is not a moral term as it can love something good or bad.
B. 知 (repeated 117 times), but it has many meanings (knowledge, learning, wisdom, etc.). It is not a moral term as the knowledge or smart can be used in a good or a bad way.
C. 道 (repeated 87 times), it is an important term in Confucian cosmology as the laws of Heaven. In general, it refers to something positive, but it is also used in many different ways (the Heavenly way, the paths, the condition of government, etc.). That is, it is not used as a moral term in 論 語.
D. 德 (repeated 40 times), it often refers to as good virtue but not always, as there can be good 德 or bad 德.

By all means, 道 and 德 are not the hard core words in 論 語 while 道 德 is the name for Taoist’s canon. Without the above simple description, many Western readers are not only having difficulty to understand the sayings of 論 語 but can easily conclude that 論 語 is of no value to the Western thoughts. But, with the above description, the readers (both Westerner and native Chinese) can now understand what the heck that 論 語 is all about.


論 語 was not written by Confucius himself but was recorded by his students or students of the students, and it was the discussion between Confucius and his students (mainly about how to become a 君 子 by learning about 仁). The following lists those important students. In the parenthesis is the number of times that that student appeared in 論 語: 有 子 (3), 曾 子 (21), 子 夏 (14), 子 贡 (27), 子 游 (5), 子 张 (10), 子 路 (12), 仲 弓 (3), 颜 渊 [回] (27), 冉 有 (11).

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Sat Mar 01, 2014 7:47 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 1:《學 而 第 一 》

#1: 子 曰:“學而时習之, 不亦悦乎? 有朋自遠方来, 不亦樂乎? 人不知而不愠, 不亦君子乎?”
(子 曰 [Confucius said] : Learning and reviewing it often, isn’t it such a pleasure? Having friends coming from afar, isn’t it such a happiness? Not upset by having no fame about one’s greatness, isn’t he a 君 子?)
Note: This is the ‘opening’ for Confucianism, and it showed three key items; learning, having friends and not seeking the fame.
Comment from 龔 天 任: 論 語 is a handbook for teaching a ‘person’ to become a 君 子 by learning about the core value of Confucianism, the 仁. And, the starting places are two, 學 (learning) and having 朋 友 (friends). Thus, this 學 is the beginning of 論 語.



#2: 有 子 曰:“其為人也孝悌而好犯上者, 鲜矣。 不好犯上而好作亂者, 未之有也。 君子務本, 本立而道生。 孝悌也者, 其為仁之本與?”
(有 子 曰 [one of Confucius’ student said]:It is very rare for one who is 孝 (filial piety) and 悌 (loving his brothers) but is disobedient to his superior. There cannot be such a person who is not disobedient to his superior but is rebellious often. 君 子 devotes his effort on the basic; when the base is set, the 道 arises. Both 孝 and 悌 are the base for 仁, aren’t they?)



#3: 子 曰:“巧言令色, 鲜矣仁。”
(子 曰:Those who speaking with cunningness and with ingratiating manner can hardly be of 仁.)



#4: 曾 子 曰: 吾日三省乎吾身。 為人谋而不忠乎? 與朋友交而不信乎?傳不習乎?
(曾 子 曰 [one of Confucius’ student said]:I reflect and examine of my conducts three times a day. Am I not sincere while helping others? Am I not honest and keeping my words to my friends? Did I not study after learning from my teacher?)


#5: 子 曰: 道千乘之国, 敬事而信, 節用而愛人, 使民以时。
(子 曰:In governing a state which has one thousand chariots (a middle size state), making decision with great sincerity and honesty; spending with thriftiness and loving the citizens; drafting and employing the people for public works without interrupt their farming works.)



#6: 子 曰: 弟子入则孝, 出则悌, 谨而信, 泛愛眾而親仁, 行有餘力, 则以學文。
(子 曰:Young people should be 孝 at home, 悌 (loving and obedient) outside of home, speaking only after careful thoughts and be trustworthy, treating everyone with kindness while close to those who are knowing 仁. If still having additional energy after performing the above duties, he can begin to learn literatures.)



#7: 子 夏 曰: 贤贤易色,事父母,能竭其力。事君,能致其身。與朋友交,言而有信。雖曰未學,吾必谓之學矣。
(子 夏 曰:For one who looks up to 贤 (君 子, one up keep the morality) while not indulging in woman, he will do his best to take care of his parents. He will give his ‘life’ to his king. He keeps his words and honesty to his friends. Although he did not learn (in school), I will say that he is a learned person.)


#8: 子 曰: 君子不重则不威,學则不固。主忠信,无友不如己者,過则勿惮改。
(子 曰:If 君 子 is not care for his details, he will not gain the respect; will not gain the solid knowledge in study. The key is sincerity and honesty. Do not make a friend who has no better morality than himself. If made a mistake, do not be ashamed of righting the wrong.)



#9: 曾 子 曰: 慎终追遠,民德歸厚矣。
(曾 子 曰:(When people higher up) taking great care for people’s passing away and paying great respect for the ancestors, then people’s morality will become non-villain.)



#10: 子禽問于子贡曰:“夫子至于是邦也,必聞其政。求之與?抑與之與?”子贡曰:“夫子温良恭儉讓以得之。夫子求之也,其诸異乎人之求之與?”
(子 禽 asking 子 贡, saying: Confucius went to a state (country) and always being briefed by the ruler. Is it demanded by him (Confucius)? Or, is his advice seeking by the ruler? 子贡曰: he gets because of his virtues; 温 (cordial), 良 (kindness), 恭 (sincerity), 儉 (frugal), and 讓 (humbleness). His seeking is different from other’s).



#11: 子 曰: 父在,觀其志。父没,觀其行。三年无改于父之道,可谓孝矣。
(子 曰: Observing his thoughts when his father is alive, observing his actions after his father passed away. For three years, he followed his father’s 道 (footsteps), he has done the 孝.)



#12: 有 子 曰:禮之用,和為贵。先王之道斯為美。小大由之,有所不行。知和而和,不以禮節之,亦不可行也。
(有 子 曰:the application of 禮 is all about the harmony and peace. This is why the 道 of ancient kings is such a perfection. For anything big or small, it will not be done (if it is not following the 禮). For something is harmony, it still cannot be done if it is not regulated by 禮.)



#13: 有 子 曰: 信近于義,言可復也。恭近于禮,遠耻辱也。因不失其親,亦可宗也。
(有 子 曰:If the promise is in accord with 義, that promise can be repeated. If the sincerity is in accord with 禮, he will be far away from shame. He can be a role model if he is respected by his kinsmen.)



#14: 子 曰: 君子食无求饱,居无求安。敏于事而慎于言,就有道而正焉。可谓好學也已。
(子 曰: 君 子 does not demand a whole belly with food and not the comfort of living. But, diligent on works and be very careful about his sayings and always follow the 道 on his conduct. This can be said as ‘willing to learn’.)



#15: 子贡曰:“贫而无谄,富而无驕。何如?”子曰:“可也。未若贫而樂,富而好禮者也。”子贡曰:“诗云:如切如磋,如琢如磨。其斯之谓與?”子曰:“赐也,始可與言诗已矣。告诸往而知来者。”
(子 贡 曰: ‘Poor but not being obsequious’ or ‘rich but not arrogant’; what about these virtues? 子 曰: they are okay, but not as good as those who ‘being poor but happy’ and ‘being rich but loving 禮’. 子 贡 曰: the book of poems said, ‘like cutting and polishing; like carving and grounding (the more the better)’, isn’t this what you mean? 子 曰: you (子 贡) can now learn the 诗 (book of poems), as teaching you the history and you can foretell the future.)



#16: 子 曰: 不患人之不己知,患不知人也。
(子 曰: Don’t worry about not being known by others (about your greatness), but do worry about your inability of seeing the greatness of other people.)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Sat Mar 01, 2014 7:48 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 2:《為 政 第 二 》


#1: 子 曰: 為政以德,譬如北辰,居其所,而眾星共之。
(子 曰: Governing with 德 should be the same the Northern star which sits at its place while surrounded by many other stars.)



#2: 子 曰: 诗三百篇,一言以蔽之,曰:“思无邪。”
(子 曰: One word about the key spirit of the three hundred poems in the Poem Canon is “without improper thoughts”.)



#3: 子曰:導之以政,齊之以德,民免而无耻。導之以德,齊之以禮,有耻且格。
(子 曰: guiding people with politics (laws and regulations) and governing them with 德, people will stay out of trouble but without the sense of shame. Guiding with 德 and governing with 禮, people will stay within laws and have the sense of shame.)



#4: 子 曰: 吾十有五而志于學,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而從心所欲不逾矩。
(子 曰: at age of 15, I committed to study. At 30, I can standalone (intellectually). At 40, nothing can confuse me. At 50, I know 天命 (the will of God, the Heaven). At 60, nothing can upset me. At 70, I will no longer commit wrong in terms of 禮 (the laws of proper conducts).)



#5: 孟懿子問孝。子曰:“无違。”樊遲御,子告之曰:“孟孫問孝于我,我對曰无違。”樊遲曰:“何谓也?”子曰:“生,事之以禮,死,葬之以禮,祭之以禮。”
(孟 懿 子 asks about 孝. 子 曰 (Confucius said): do not disobey. When 樊遲 drove a wagon, Confucius told him (about the discussion) and said “孟 懿 子 asks about 孝, and I said ‘no disobedient’. 樊 遲 曰 (ask) : ‘what do you mean (disobey of what)’? Confucius said, ‘when parents alive, living with them in accord with 禮’, ‘when they passed away, burying with 禮’, ‘in the rite of memorial, conducting with 禮’.)



#6: 孟 武 伯 問孝。子曰:“父母,唯其疾之憂。”
(孟 武 伯 asks about 孝. 子曰: concerning only about their (parents’) health.)



#7: 子 游 問孝。子曰:“今之孝者,是谓能養,至于犬馬,皆能有養,不敬,何以别乎?”
(子 游 asks about 孝. 子 曰: today’s saying is about providing the parents with a living. Yet, even the dog and horse can have a living. Without sincere reverence, what is the difference (between the two providing livings)?)



#8: 子 夏 問孝。子曰:“色難。有事,弟子服其勞,有酒食,先生馔,曾是以為孝乎?”
(子 夏 asks about 孝. 子 曰: ‘without giving the parents unhappy-face’. Doing works for them and providing them food, can these be about 孝?)


#9: 子 曰: 吾與回言终日,不違如愚,退而省其私,亦足以發。回也不愚。
(子 曰: I speak with 回 (his student) all day, he looks like dumb. Yet, afterwards, he can review the discussion alone and can make new insights. He (回) is not dumb.)



#10: 子 曰: 视其所以,觀其所由,察其所安,人焉叟哉!人焉叟哉!
(子 曰: after ‘looking what his base (rationale) is, reviewing his following and examining his comfortable spot’, how can a person hide his character?)



#11: 子 曰: 温故而知新,可以為師矣。
(子 曰: reviewing the old lessens and getting new insights, he can be a teacher then.)



#12:子 曰: 君子不器。
(子 曰: 君 子 will not be trapped in a box (in thoughts and behaviors).)



#13: 子 贡 問 君子。子曰:“先行, 其言而后從之。
(子 贡 asks about 君 子. 子 曰: “He puts his words into action before talking”.)


#14: 子 曰: 君子周而不比,小人比而不周。
(子 曰: 君 子 gets along with everyone while not forming small circles. 小 人 does the opposite.)



#15: 子 曰: 學而不思则罔,思而不學则殆。
(子 曰: learning without contemplating will be bewildered. Contemplating without learning will be in vain.)



#16: 子 曰: 攻乎異端,斯害也已。
(子 曰: addressing an issue from a wrong beginning, it will get harmful results.)



#17: 子 曰 :由,诲汝知之乎!知之為知之,不知為不知,是知也。
(子 曰: 由 (a student), (I will) teach you about ‘what is knowledge’. The things which you know that you know are knowledge. The things which you know that you do not know are also knowledge. Both are knowledge.)



#18: 子 张 學干禄。 子 曰:“多聞阙疑,慎言其余,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其余,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。
(子 张 wants to learn the skill of being a government official. 子 曰: gathering as much information as possible with ear and putting all doubtful ones aside; then talking the remaining with great care. In this way, you will make lesser mistakes. Doing the same with your eyes and acting upon the remaining, you will have lesser regrets. With lesser mistakes and regrets, the government career is secured.)



#19: 哀 公 問 曰:“何為则民服?”孔子對曰:“举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。”
(哀 公 asks: how can I make people submissive (to me)? Confucius answers: “using honest person as official over the dishonor persons, people will be submissive. Using dishonor persons over the honest ones, people will not be submissive.”)



#20: 季 康 子 問:“使民敬忠以勸,如之何?”子曰:“临之以莊则敬,孝慈则忠,举善而教不能则勸。”
(季 康 子 asks: making people knowing respecting (me) and loyal to me by teaching them these about, is this a good way to do it? 子 曰: facing them with honesty, they will respect you. Promoting 孝 and kindness, they will be loyal to you. Using good persons to teach the dumb ones, they will learn the ways.)


#21: 或谓孔子曰:“子奚不為政?”子曰:“書云:孝乎!惟孝友于兄弟,施于有政。是亦為政。奚其為為政!”
(或 (someone) talks to 孔 子 (Confucius) and said: “why do you not enter into the politics? 子 曰: “the Book (of History) said, be 孝. When one acting with 孝 and caring for his brethren, he has already impacted on politics. What else is acting on politics?)


#22: 子 曰: 人而无信,不知其可也。大車无倪,小車无杌,其何以行之哉!
(子 曰: how can one be a man if he is not trustworthy? Just the same as a large cart without a yoke and a small cart without a collar, can they be droved?)



#23: 子 张 問:“十世可知也?”子曰:“殷因與夏禮,所损益,可知也。周因于殷禮,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,雖百世,可知也。”
(子 张 asks: can 10 generations in the future be known? 子 曰: 殷 (Yin-dynasty) followed the 禮 of 夏 (sha-dynasty), its (禮) changes (more or less) can be known. 周 (Chou-dynasty) followed 殷, and its changes are known. Then, those follows 周, the changes can be known even after 100 generations.)


#24: 子 曰: 非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见義不為,无勇也。
(子 曰: giving offerings to deceased who is not one’s own ancestors, it is obsequious. Facing the righteous thing without acting on it, it is cowardliness.)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Sat Mar 01, 2014 7:50 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 3:《八 佾 第 三 》


#1: 孔 子 谓 季 氏:“八佾舞于庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也!”
(孔 子 talks to 季 氏, saying “using emperor’s protocol by a Duke, can this be tolerated? If can, then what else cannot be tolerated?)



#2: 三家者以雍彻。子曰:“相维辟公,天子穆穆。奚取于三家之堂!”
(Three Dukes performed emperor’s offering rite. 子 曰: in attendance of many dukes, why is the rites of emperor are played in these dukes’ courtyards?)


#3: 子 曰:“人而不仁,如禮何!人而不仁,如樂何!”
(子 曰: if man does not up hold the 仁, how can there be 禮. If man does not practice 仁, how can there be 樂.



#4: 林 放 問禮之本。子曰:“大哉問!禮,與其奢也,寧儉,與其易也,寧戚。”
(林 放 asks the essence of 禮. 子 曰:” How great such a question is! It is rather to be thrifty than to be extravagance; rather with sincere heartfelt than formality.)


#5: 子 曰:“夷狄之有君,不如诸夏之无也。”
(子 曰: although the barbarian has a ruler (king), it is not more civilized than Chinese States even while they were without any ruler.)



#6: 季 氏 旅于泰山。子谓冉有曰:“汝弗能救與?”對曰:“不能。”子曰:“呜呼!曾谓泰山,不若林放乎!”
(季 氏 (a subordinate of a Duke) travelled to 泰 山 (a great mountain, place for Emperor to offer rites to Heaven) to offer a rite. Confucius talked to 冉 有 (a student, a colleague of 季 氏), saying “can you stop him doing this? 冉 有 answered, ‘no, I can’t’. “ 子 曰: Oh, my heaven! Who would have thought that 泰 山 (the holy mountain) is not as important as 林 放 (who denounces the Emperor’s prerogative and the mountain’s holiness). )



#7: 子 曰:“君子无所争。必也射乎!揖讓而升,下而饮,其争也君子。”
(子 曰: 君 子 is not contentious. Yet, if an archery contest is necessary, he will salute first then enter into the ring. After the game, he will cheer the opponent with wine. This contention (competition) still makes him a 君子.)



#8: 子 夏 問曰:“’巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮。’何谓也?”子曰:“绘事后素。”曰:“禮后乎?”子曰:“起予者商也,始可以言诗已矣。”
(子 夏 asks: “entrancing smiles lovely, beautiful eyes glancing around” (sentences in the book of Poem), what are the meanings of these sentences? 子 曰: the makeup are put on top of the original. 子 夏 says, is then the 禮 also superficial? 子 曰: “you (子 夏) are the one gives me the insight about those sentences. I can now teach you the book of Poem.)



#9: 子 曰:“夏禮吾能言之,杞不足征也。殷禮吾能言之,宋不足征也。文献不足故也。足,则吾能征之矣。”
(子 曰: for the 禮 of 夏-dynasty, I can talk about but cannot provide proof as the State 杞 (the descendent of 夏-dynasty) does not have enough supporting evidences. For the 禮 of 殷-dynasty, I can talk about but the State 宋 (descendent of 殷-dynasty) does not have enough supporting evidences. There is not enough evidences in the Archives. If enough, I will be able to prove them.)



#10: 子 曰:“谛,自既灌而往者,吾不欲觀之矣。”
(子 曰: 谛 (a rite performed by young persons who impersonates the dead ancestor), I do not want to watch.)



#11: 或問谛之说。子曰:“不知也。知其说者之于天下也,其如示诸斯乎?”指其掌。
(或 (someone) asks about the issue of 谛, 子 曰: “I don’t know. Those who claim to know about it, they can rule the Empire as easy as this (pointing to his palm), can’t they?)



#12: 祭如在,祭神如神在。子曰:“吾不與祭,如不祭。”
(During offering (to ancestors), one must see his ancestor as truly ‘present’, the same for the offering to gods (truly present). 子 曰: “if I did not present at an offering rite, how can it say that I am there?”)



#13: 王 孫 贾 問曰:“與其媚于奥,寧媚于灶也。何谓也?”子曰:“不然。獲罪于天,无所祷也。”
(王 孫 贾 asks: “Rather to be obsequious to the kitchen gods than to the gods of the inner chamber (such as bedroom)” (a saying of the ancient)”, what does this mean? 子 曰: Why not! Otherwise, you have no place to pray, when you are damned by Heaven.)



#14: 子 曰:“周监于二代。郁郁乎文哉,吾從周。”
(子 曰: 周-dynasty has two role models (夏 and 殷). Thus, it is resplendent in culture. I am for 周.)



#15: 子入太廟,每事問。或曰:“孰谓邹人之子知禮乎?入太廟,每事問。”子聞之曰:“是禮也。”
(When Confucius went into the Grand Temple, he asked about every details. 或 (someone) said, “As everyone said that Confucius knows all about 禮, why is he asking everything in the Grand Temple?” Confucius heard about this comment and said, “this (the asking) is 禮”.)



#16: 子 曰:“射不主皮,為力不同科,古之道也。”
(子 曰: as man has different talent, the archery is not a necessary discipline for everyone. This is the way of antiquity.)



#17: 子 贡 欲去告朔之饩羊。子曰:“赐也,尔愛其羊,我愛其禮。”
(子 贡 wants to do away with scarifying sheep at 朔 (the rite of receiving a new Moon). 子 曰: “子 贡, you care about the sheep, I care about the 禮 (the proper offering in a rite).)



#18: 子 曰:“事君盡禮,人以為谄也。”
(子 曰: “Serving the King by observing all 禮, others will see him as obsequious.”) Note: one should not worry about others’ opinion in this case.)



#19: 定 公 問:“君使臣,臣事君,如之何?”孔子對曰:“君使臣以禮,臣事君以忠。”
(定 公 (a Duke) asks, “King leads the subordinates, and subordinates serve the King”, how about this? Confucius answered, “King leads the subordinates with 禮, and subordinates serve the King with 忠 (loyalty).)



#20: 子 曰:“關雎,樂而不淫,哀而不傷。”
(子 曰:關雎 (a title of a poem), joy and happy without lust, sorrow without depression.)



#21: 哀 公 問社于 宰 我。宰我對曰:“夏后氏以松,殷人以柏,周人以栗。曰:’使民戰栗。’”子聞之曰:“成事不说,遂事不谏,既往不咎。”
(哀 公 (a Duke) asks 宰 我 (a student of Confucius) about the building the altar for the god of Earth. 宰 我 answered, “夏后氏 (ancient King of 夏-dynasty) used ‘pine’, 殷-dynasty used ‘cedar’, 周-dynasty people uses 栗 (chestnut). (Note, 栗 is also a word for tremble.) Someone says, it is for making subjects tremble. Confucius heard this comment and said, “One should not talk about the done deal, one should not argue against a set rule. Let the gone-by be the gone-by without further condemnation.”)



#22: 子曰:“管仲之器小哉!”或曰:“管仲儉乎?”曰:“管氏有三歸,官事不摄。焉得儉?”“然则管仲知禮乎?”曰:“邦君树塞門,管氏亦树塞門。邦君為两君之好,有反坫,管氏亦有反坫。管氏而知禮,孰不知禮?”
(子 曰: 管 仲 (a great politician) is not so great. Someone said, 管 仲 is very thrifty, isn’t he? Confucius said, “管 仲 has three mansions with many staffs. Is this thrifty? Someone said, “yet, he knows about 禮, isn’t he? Confucius said, “the king of the State has a screen-gate, 管 仲 (not a king) does too. The King has a special wine cup for the state dinner, 管 仲 has those cups too. Is 管 仲 still knowing (or obeying) the 禮?)



#23: 子语 鲁 太 師樂,曰:“樂其可知也。始作,翕如也。從之,纯如也,徼如也,绎如也。以成。”
(Confucius talks to 鲁 太 師 (the director of orchestra of State 鲁) about 樂, saying: 樂 (meaning music here) can be known. At the beginning, in unison. Then, goes harmonious, with high-notes and end with lasting continuity.)



#24: 仪封人请见,曰:“君子之至于斯也,吾未嘗不得见也。”從者见之。出曰:“二三子,何患于丧乎?天下无道也久矣,天将以夫子為木铎。”
(The border official of 仪 requests an audience, saying, I have never be denied an audience by any 君 子 who came to my place. The students let him in. After the meeting, he said, “Hi you kids, why are you worry about the end of time? The Empire has long without following the 道. Yet, the Heaven will let the Confucius to be the prophet.”)



#25: 子谓韶:“盡美矣,又盡善也。”谓武:“盡美矣,未盡善也。”
(Confucius talks about 韶 (name of a music): it is perfectly beautify and perfectly good. About 武 (another music), perfectly beautify but not perfectly good.)



#26: 子 曰:“居上不宽,為禮不敬,临丧不哀。吾何以觀之哉!”
(子 曰: Sitting at high place but is not tolerant. Following 禮 but is not sincere. At funeral without mourning. What can I find any worthiness from such a person?)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Sat Mar 01, 2014 7:51 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 4:《里 仁 第 四 》


#1: 子 曰:“里仁為美。择不處仁,焉得知!”
(子 曰: the village which upholds 仁 is the most beautiful place. How can a person be wise if he does not settle a place of upholding 仁?)



#2: 子 曰:“不仁者,不可以久處约,不可以长處樂。仁者安仁,知者利仁。”
(子 曰: for one is not 仁, he cannot stay under stress long, cannot be happy in comfort long. The one with 仁 is at home with 仁. The one who is only wise simply using 仁 for his advantage.)



#3: 子 曰:“唯仁者能好人,能惡人。”
(子 曰: only those who are with 仁 have the capacity to value the good person and to despise the bad person.)



#4: 子 曰:“苟志于仁矣,无惡也。”
(子 曰: if one put efforts into being 仁, he will be free from mischiefs.)



#5: 子曰:“富與贵,是人之所欲也,不以其道得之,不處也。贫與贱,是人这所惡也,不以其道得之,不去也。君子去仁,惡乎成名?君子无终食之间違仁,造次必于是,颠沛必于是。”
(子 曰: wealth and high station are what everyone wants, but one should not keep them if they came in with an improper way. Poor and low station are what everyone dislike, but one should not get out of that situation with any improper way. If 君 子 abandons 仁, how can he still be a 君 子? 君 子 will not set 仁 aside even for short period of one meal-time, not during change and hurry, not during uncertainty.)



#6: 子曰:“我未见好仁者,惡不仁者。好仁者无以尚之,惡不仁者其為仁矣,不使不仁者加乎其身。有能一日用力于仁矣乎,我未见力不足者。盖有之矣,我未之见也。”
(子 曰: I have never met a person who is 仁 while dislike those who are not 仁. How can one be 仁 if he dislike those who are not 仁? Just don’t let the ‘not 仁’ become part of himself. If one can be 仁 one whole day, why can he not be 仁 always? If there is such a person (only being 仁 a short while), I have never met.)



#7: 子 曰:“人之過也,各于其党。觀過,斯知仁矣!”
(子 曰: man makes err, often reflecting his following. Observing one’s wrong doing, I will know about his degree of 仁.)



#8: 子 曰:“朝聞道,夕死可矣。”
(子 曰: learning the 道 in the morning, he would not have been regretful even if were dead in the evening.)



#9: 子 曰:“士志于道,而耻惡衣惡食者,未足與議也。”
(子 曰: those who search for 道 while are ashamed of bad food and old clothes are not worthy of any conversation.)



#10: 子 曰:“君子之于天下也,无適也,无莫也,義之與比。”
(子 曰: for dealing the issues of the world (Empire), 君 子 takes no preset position, no preconceived rejection, but measures them with 義.)



#11: 子 曰:“君子懷德,小人懷土。君子懷刑,小人懷惠。”
(子 曰: 君 子 cherishes 德 (virtue). 小 人 cherishes 土 (land, treasure). 君 子 values the laws, 小 人 values the gifts.)



#12: 子 曰:“放于利而行,多怨。”
(子 曰: if one acts only about the ‘interest’ (profit), he will be greatly disliked.)



#13: 子 曰:“能以禮讓為国乎,何有。不能以禮讓為国,如禮何?”
(子 曰: If one governs with 禮 and tolerance, how can he face any problem? If one cannot govern with 禮 and tolerance, what is the 禮 for?)



#14: 子 曰:“不患无位,患所以立。不患莫己知,求為可知也。”
(子 曰: do not worry about without an office (high position), do worry about your qualification. Do not worry about that no one knows about your ability, do worry about what your worth is.)



#15: 子 曰:“参乎,吾道一以贯之。”曾子曰:“唯。”子出,門人問曰:“何谓也?”曾子曰:“夫子之道,忠恕而已矣。”
(子 曰: 参 (a student), my teaching is a unified system. 参 says, “Yes”. Confucius went out, and other students ask, “what is it all about?” 参 says, “teacher’s teaching is only about 忠 (loyal to others) and 恕 (tolerant to others).)



#16: 子 曰:“君子喻于義,小人喻于利。”
(子 曰: 君 子 cares for 義, 小 人 cares for the 利 (profits) only.)



#17: 子 曰:“见贤思齊焉,见不贤而内自省也。”
(子 曰: Seeing a learned and moral person, taking him as the role model. Seeing a not learned person, reflecting and examining yourself (for not being the same as him).)



#18: 子 曰:“事父母几谏,见志不從,又敬不違,勞而不怨。”
(子 曰: do persuade parents of doing wrong. If they ignore your persuasion, do not lose your reverent manners (to your parents) and do not complain about for wearing out yourself to right their wrongs.)



#19: 子 曰:“父母在,不遠游,游必有方。”
(子 曰: when parents are still living, do not travel afar. If you have to, let them know your whereabout.)



#20: 子 曰:“三年无改于父之道,可谓孝矣。”
(子 曰: when a man serve his father in a constant manner for three years, he has done 孝 (filial piety).)



#21: 子 曰:“父母之年,不可不知也。一则以喜,一则以懼。”
(子 曰: one must know parents’ age. It is a good thing (as they are still alive). It is also a thing of concern (as they are getting old).



#22: 子 曰:“古者言之不出,耻恭之不逮也。”
(子 曰: in the ancient, one did not give out too many words (promises), as he was ashamed of if he could not keep those words.)



#23: 子 曰:“以约失之者鲜矣。”
(子 曰: one who will not miss the target if he can keep the essence of that target.)



#24: 子 曰:“君子欲讷于言而敏于行。”
(子 曰: 君 子 should do more and say less.)



#25: 子 曰:“德不孤,必有鄰。”
(子 曰: the one who has 德 (virtue) will not be alone, there is always neighbors.)



#26: 子 游 曰:“事君数,斯辱矣。朋友数,斯疏矣。”
(子 游 says: serving the king often, he will definitely get reprimand sometimes. With too many friends, none will be a true friend.)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Sat Mar 01, 2014 7:51 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 5:《公 冶 长 第 五 》


#1: 子谓 公 冶 长:“可妻也。雖在缧绁之中,非其罪也。”以其子妻之。
(Confucius talks about 公 冶 长: although he is in jail, he can be my daughter-in-law, as his in jail was not his fault. He gives his daughter to 公 冶 长 in marriage.)



#2: 子谓南容:“邦有道,不廢,邦无道,免于刑戮。”以其兄之子妻之。
(Confucius talks about 南 容: when the country has good ruler, he enters into politics. When the country has no good ruler, he stay away to avoid the trouble. He (Confucius) gives his brother’s daughter to 南 容 in marriage.)



#3: 子谓 子 贱:“君子哉若人。鲁无君子者,斯焉取斯。”
(Confucius talks about 子 贱: he is such a great 君 子. If the State 鲁 has no 君 子, where he learn this from?)


#4: 子 贡 問曰:“赐也何如?”子曰:“汝器也。”曰:“何器也?”曰:“琏瑚也。”
(子 贡 (a student) asks: how about 赐 (a student)? 子 曰: as a 器 (having a fixed usage while having no other use). 子 贡 asks: what kind of 器. Confucius answers: 琏 瑚 (a 器 used in the sacrificial rites). )
Comment from 龔 天 任: This verse talks about that 赐 is only good at rules of sacrificial rites, without not much of other knowledge.



#5: 或 曰:“雍也仁而不佞。”子曰:“焉用佞。御人以口给,屡憎于人,不知其仁。焉用佞?”
(Someone said: 雍 (a student) is 仁 without being flattering. 子 曰: why flattering? Flattering will not viewed as 仁 but often despised by others. Why flattering?)



#6: 子使 漆 雕 開 仕。對曰:“吾斯之未能信。”子说。
(Confucius wants 漆 雕 開 getting into politics. 漆 雕 開 answered, “I do not trust myself doing this yet.” Confucius was pleased.)



#7: 子 曰:“道不行,乘桴浮于海,從我者其由與!”子路聞之喜。子曰:“由也好勇過我,无所取材。”
(子 曰: If I cannot serve the country, I will go away to sea, and the only who will follow me is 子 路 (a student). 子 路 heard about this comment and was very happy. Confucius said, 子 路 is a brave man but good for nothing else.)
Comment from 龔 天 任: going away to sea needs no sage or great politician but needs a brave man.



#8: 孟武伯問:“子路仁乎?”子曰:“不知也。”又問。子曰:“由也,千乘之国,可使治其赋也。不知其仁也。”“求也何如?”子曰:“求也,千室之邑,百乘之家,可使為之宰也。不知其仁也。”“赤也何如?”子曰:“赤也,束带立于朝,可使與賓客言也。不知其仁也。”
(孟 武 伯 (a low rank Duke) asks: is 子 路 (a student) a 仁 person? 子 曰: “I don’t know.” Ask again. 子 曰: “子 路 can govern a midsize State, but I do not know where he is 仁 or not. Ask again, “how about 求 (a student)?” 子 曰: “求 can govern a small State. Don’t know about his 仁. Ask again, “how about 赤 (a student)?” 子 曰: “赤 can be a good governor, not knowing about his 仁.”)



#9: 子谓 子 贡 曰:“汝與回也孰愈?”對曰:“赐也何敢望回。回也聞一以知十,赐也聞一以知二。”子曰:“弗如也。吾與汝弗如也。”
(Confucius talks to 子 贡, saying: “who is more competent between you and 回 (a student)?” 子 贡 replied, “How dare I to compare myself with 回? He learn one and understand 10 which were not learned while I can gain 2.” 子 曰: you and I both are not as good as 回 on this.)



#10: 宰 予 旦寝,子曰:“朽木,不可雕也,粪土之墙,不可圬也。于予與何诛?”
(宰 予 (a student) sleeps in the morning. 子 曰: as a rotten wood which cannot use for carving, as the turd-made wall cannot be painted. What is the use of reprimanding him?)



#11: 子 曰:“始吾于人也,聽其言而信其行,今吾于人也,聽其言而觀其行。于予與改是。”
(子 曰: earlier, I heard one’s words and believed that those words will be honored. Now, I hear one’s words but will check out his actions. It was 宰 予 who forced me making this change.)



#12: 子 曰:“吾未见剛者。”或對曰:“申伥。”子曰:“伥也欲。焉得剛!”
(子 曰: I have never met anyone who upholds a principle without wavering. Someone said, 申 伥 (a student). 子 曰: 申 伥 has many desires. How can he be upholding any principle?)



#13: 子 贡 曰:“我不欲人之加诸我也,吾亦欲无加诸人。”子曰:“赐也,非尔所及也。”
(子 贡 said, “I do not want someone treat me in such a way, then, I will not treat anyone in such a way neither.” 子 曰: “子 贡, it is beyond your ability to do such a promise.”)



#14: 子 贡 曰:“夫子之文章,可得而聞也,夫子之言性與天道,不可得而聞也。”
(子 贡 曰: the literary work of Confucius can be understood. But his talking about the 道 of Heaven and the 性 (human nature) of man cannot be understood.)



#15: 子 路 有聞,未之能行,唯恐有聞。
(If something cannot be accomplished by 子 路, he does not want to hear about.)



#16: 子 贡 問曰:“孔文子何以谓之文也?”子曰:“敏而好學,不耻下問,是以谓之文也。”
(子 贡 asks: why 孔 文 子 (a person) has the word 文 (literature) in his name? 子 曰: “he study diligently and not ashamed of asking questions from lowly persons. This is about 文.)



#17: 子谓 子 產:“有君子之道四焉。其行己也恭,其事上也敬,其養民也惠,其使民也義。”
(Confucius talks about 子 產 (a famous politician): “there are four requirements of being a 君 子. His acts are sincere. His serving the superior is with respect. His caring for the subjects (people) is with kindness. His drafting the labors is with the fairness and righteousness.)



#18: 子 曰: “晏 平 仲 善與人交,久而敬之。”
(子 曰: 晏 平 仲 (a famous person) treats friends sincerely. After a long period, those friends still respect him.)
Comment from 龔 天 任: often, friends becomes enemy after a long encounter.



#19: 子 曰: “臧 文 仲 居蔡,山節藻悦,何如其知也。”
(子 曰: 臧 文 仲 (a famous person) lived at 蔡 (a country) with house similar to palace. Is this a smart thing to do?)
Comment from 龔 天 任: 山節藻悦, 古代天子的廟饰。山節,刻成山形的斗拱;藻棁,画有藻文的梁上短柱。后用以形容居處豪華奢侈,越等僭礼.



#20: 子张問曰:“令尹子文三仕為令尹,无喜色。三已之,无愠色。舊令尹之政,必以告新令尹。何如?”子曰:“忠矣!”曰:“仁矣乎?”子曰:“未知。焉得仁?”“崔子弑齊君,陈文子有馬十乘,棄而違之。至于他邦,则曰:’猶吾大夫崔子也。’違之,至一邦,则又曰:’猶吾大夫崔子也。’違之。何如?”子曰:“清矣。”曰:“仁矣乎?”曰:“未知。焉得仁?”
(子 张 (a student) asks: 令 尹 子 文 did not show any joy when he was appointed as the Prime Minister the third time. Neither did he show any upset after being fired the third time. And, he always gave a great transition to the new guy. What do you think about this? 子 曰: he was honest to his job. Ask, is he 仁? 子 曰: he was not even wise (being fired three times); thus, how can he be 仁? Ask, 崔 子 killed the King. 陈 文 子 (a high official) ran away but tells others that he is (still) the high official. How about this? 子 曰:not corrupted (not a part of coup). Ask, is he 仁? Confucius said, he was not even wise (unable to stop the coup). How can he be 仁?)



#21: 季 文 子 三思而后行。子聞之,曰:“再,斯可矣!”
(季 文 子 will take an action after review the issue three times. Confucius heard about it and said, twice is enough.)


#22: 子 曰:“寧武子,邦有道,则知,邦无道,则愚。其知可及也,其愚不可及也。”
(子 曰: 寧 武 子 becomes a wise man when the ruler is 仁 and becomes dumb when the ruler is not 仁. His wise can be learned by others, but his dumb cannot be simulated.)



#23: 子在 陈 曰:“歸與,歸與!吾党之小子狂简,斐然成章,不知所以裁之。”
(Confucius at 陈-State, saying, “go home, go home, the young people at home have talent and accomplishments but no knowing how to make a use of those.)



#24: 子 曰: “伯 夷, 叔 齊,不念舊惡,怨是用希。”
(子 曰: 伯 夷 and 叔 齊 (two great men) do not hang on the bad feeling, thus facing ill-will seldom.)



#25: 子 曰:“孰谓微生高直?或乞醢焉,乞诸其鄰而與之。”
(子 曰: someone said that 微 生 高 is sincere. Someone beg some vinegar from him. He went begging from the neighbor, then gave it to the beggar.)



#26: 子 曰:“巧言令色,足恭, 左 丘 明 耻之, 丘 亦耻之。匿怨而友其人,左丘明耻之,丘亦耻之。”
(子 曰: cunning speaking, flattering manner and showing great sincerity, Mr. 左 丘 明 is ashamed about it, and so do I. Concealing the unhappy and bad feeling while pertaining to be friendly to a person, 左 丘 明 is ashamed of it, and so do I.)



#27: 颜渊季路侍,子曰:“盍各言尔志?”子路曰:“愿車馬,衣輕裘,與朋友共,敝之而无憾。”颜渊曰:“愿无伐善,无施勞。”子路曰:“愿聞子之志。”子曰:“老者安之,朋友信之,少者懷之。”
(颜 渊 and 子 路 were with Confucius. 子 曰: “why don’t both of you tell about you objective in life?” 子 路 曰: “I will share my belongings (carriage, good dress, etc.) with my friends and will not be unhappy if they are wore out by them.” 颜 渊 曰: “I will not boast my own good points and will not let someone else doing my chores.” 子 路 曰: “I would like to hear about your (Confucius’) objective.” 子 曰: “let the elders have secure livelihood, having truths among friends, and the young are taken care for.”)



#28: 子 曰:“已矣乎!吾未见能见其過而内自讼者也。”
(子 曰: I have given up the hope, as I have not seen a person who blames on (or admits to) himself while he sees his own mistake.)



#29: 子 曰:“十室之邑,必有忠信如丘者焉,不如丘之好學也。”
(子 曰: “in every small neighborhood, there are always someone who are having the same 忠 (sincerity) and 信 (truthworthy) as me, but they just not as willing as me in inquiring new knowledge and new virtues.)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Sat Mar 01, 2014 7:52 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 6:《雍 也 第 六 》


#1: 子曰:“雍也可使南面。”仲弓問子桑伯。子曰:“可也简。”仲弓曰:“居敬而行简,以临其民,不亦可乎?居简而行简,无乃太简乎?”子曰:“雍之言然。”
(子 曰: 雍 (a student) has the ability to be a King. 仲 弓 (the middle name for 雍) asks about Mr. 子 桑 伯 (how about him? Can he be a king?). 子 曰: ”Okay (be a king), but he is a bit not caring about the details (in governing).” 仲 弓 曰: “Is that Okay for governing the people without the complicated rules while disciplines himself with sincerity? Yet, if he is going easy on both fronts, it will be too careless, isn’t it?” 子 曰: “雍’s saying is correct.”)



#2: 哀 公 問:“弟子孰為好學?”孔子對曰:“有颜回者好學,不遷怒,不贰過,不幸短命死矣!今也则亡,未聞好學者也。”
(哀 公 asks: “which one of your students is most eager to learn?” Confucius answered, “There is 颜 回 which wanted to upgrade himself in learning. He will not vent his anger to others and will not make the same mistake twice. Unfortunately, he died young. As for now, I have not known anyone who is eager to learn (the virtues, not just knowledge). )



#3: 子華使于齊,冉子為其母请粟。子曰:“與之釜。”请益。曰:“與之庚。”冉子于其粟五秉,子曰:“赤之適齊也,乘肥馬,衣輕裘。吾聞之也,君子周急不继富。”原思為之宰,與之粟九百,辭。子曰:“毋以與尔鄰里鄉党乎?”
(子 華 ready to have a mission (for the school of Confucius) to the State of 齊, 冉 子 (a friend of 子 華) requests some grains for 子 華’s mother (who stayed behind). 子 曰: ”give her a pot full.” Asking more. Confucius said, give her a basket. 冉 子 gives her 5 bushels (from Confucius’ account). 子 曰: “子 華 went to 齊 with nice accommodations (good horse and dress). I have heard that 君 子 helps at the time of need, not to maintain a rich lifestyle.” 原 思 refused a salary of 900 bushels when becomes the chief of Confucius school. 子 曰: ”why can you give some of these to your neighbors?”)
Comment from 龔 天 任: this shows that Confucius was not a stingy School owner but did not want to encourage the greediness.



#4: 子谓 仲 弓 曰:“犁牛之子锌且角,雖欲勿用,山川其舍诸?”
(Confucius talks to 仲 弓, saying, “Even though we do not want to employ the baby yark cow which has beautiful horns and coat, will the nature abandon it?”)



#5: 子 曰: “回 也其心三月不違仁,其余则日月至焉而已矣。”
(子 曰: 回 (a student) does not lapse from 仁 in his heart for three months at a time, the others attain 仁 just now and then.)



#6: 季康子問:“仲由可使從政也與?”子曰:“由也果,于從政乎何有!”曰:“赐也可使從政也與?”曰:“赐也達,于從政乎何有!”曰:“求也可使從政也與?”曰:“求也藝,于從政乎何有!”
(季 康 子 asks: is 由 (a student) good enough handling politics? 子 曰:由 is very decisive. What is the problem for him to handle politics? Asking again, how about 赐 (a student)? Confucius said, 赐 is open-minded with great ability. So, why not! Asking yet again, “how about 求?” Confucius said, “求 is very skillful, why not!”)



#7: 季 氏 使 闵 子 骞 為费宰。闵子骞曰:“善為我辭焉。如有復我者,则吾必在汶上矣。”
(季 氏 (a lesser Duke) wants to employ 闵 子 骞 as the chieftain of 费 (a county). 闵 子 骞 asked someone to decline it politely and said, “if come again, then I will already be at other side of 汶 (a river).)



#8: 伯 牛 有疾,子問之,至牖執其手,曰:“命矣夫!斯人也,而有斯疾也!斯人也,而有斯疾也!”
(伯 牛 was ill. Confucius went to see him and held his hand, said, “It is a fate from Heaven. Such a person, gets such an illness. Such as person, gets such an illness.)
Comment from 龔 天 任: Confucianism is a 100% fatalism, believing the will of the Heaven, the Almighty.



#8: 子 曰:“贤哉回也!一箪食,一瓢饮,在陋巷,人不堪其憂,回也不改其樂。贤在回也!”
(子 曰: such a 贤 (person with great virtue) as 回 (a student) he is. With one small bowl of food, one ladle of drink, and very happy while living in the ghetto where is intolerable for most people. Such a 贤 as 回 he is.)



#9: 冉 求 曰:“非不说子之道,力不足也。”子曰:“力不足者,中道而廢。今汝画。”
(冉 求 (a student) 曰: “not because that I dislike your teaching, my ability is unable to reach it.” 子 曰: “for lacking the ability, someone drops out at midway. Yet, you gives up at the beginning.”)
Note: 画 means drawing a line about one’s ability at the beginning.



#10: 子 谓 子 夏 曰:“汝為君子儒,无為小人儒。”
(Confucius talks to 子 夏, saying, “You should be a 儒 of 君 子, not of 小 人.”)
Note: 儒 is the name for those who study the Confucianism.



#11: 子 游 為武城宰。子曰:“汝得人焉尔乎?”曰:“有澹台明灭者,行不由径,非公事,未嘗至于偃之室也。”
(子 游 as the chieftain of 武 城 (a city). 子 曰: “Do you find any good subordinate officer?” Answer: “there is 澹 台 明 灭 who never takes short-cut on business and does not come see me (on flattering) except on official businesses.)



#12: 子 曰:“孟之反不伐。奔而殿,将入門,策其馬,曰:’非敢后也,馬不進也。’”
(子 曰: “孟 之 反 (a famous person) does not brag (to be a better horseman). He always stay in rear of a pack. When going into the final post (gate of a competition), he will goad his horse and says ‘not stay behind intentionally, it is that the horse refuses to move forward.”)



#13: 子 曰:“不有祝跎之佞,而有宋朝之美,難乎免于今之世矣。”
(子 曰: “even as handsome as 宋 朝, you still cannot escape the fate of being ignored by the world if without the flattering skill of 祝 跎.)



#14: 子 曰:“谁能出不由户,何莫由斯道也!”
(子 曰: “Who can go out the house without through the gate? Then, why is no one following my teaching?”)



#15: 子 曰:“质勝文则野,文勝质则史,文质彬彬,然后君子。”
(子 曰: “when the essence is more than the dressing up, it is still the original. When the decorative works are more than the essence, it is artificial. Only when the 文 (decorative) and 质 (the essence) are well-expressed and well-balanced, one can be a 君 子.)



#16: 子 曰:“人之生也直,罔之生也,幸而免。”
(子 曰: “Honesty (without breaking laws) gives man an easy life. Those who play the game with the catching net (laws) survive by lucks.)



#17: 子 曰:“知之者不如好之者,好之者不如樂之者。”
(子 曰: “desiring to learn is better than those already learnt. Those who desire of learning is not as good as who is fond of learning.”)



#18: 子 曰:“中人以上,可以语上也,中人以下,不可以语上也。”
(子 曰: “above the average talent, he can try to be the best. Below the average talent, he has no chance of being the best.)



#19: 樊 遲 問知。子曰:“務民之義,敬鬼神而遠之,可谓知矣。”問仁。子曰:“先難而后獲,可谓仁矣。”
(子 曰: 樊 遲 (a student) asks about 知 (wisdom). 子 曰: “doing the 義 (righteous conducts) of everyone, and respect 鬼 (ghost, ancestors) 神 (gods or spirits) but stay off them (not getting involved), this is ‘wise’.” Asking about 仁, 子 曰: “taking (harvesting) only after hard works (not taking from others). This is 仁.”)



#20: 子 曰:“知者樂水,仁者樂山;知者動,仁者静;知者樂,仁者壽。”
(子 曰: “Wiseman enjoys the water (lakes or oceans), 仁-man enjoys mountain. Wiseman is active. The 仁-man is in tranquility. Wiseman is happy. 仁-man has longevity.)



#21: 子 曰:“齊一變,至于鲁,鲁一變,至于道。”
(子 曰: with a small change of the policy at 齊-State, it will be similar to 鲁-State. With a bit more change of 鲁’s politics, it will reach the 道 (proper way of government).)



#22: 子 曰:“觚不觚,觚哉觚哉!”
(子 曰: “is a ladle a ladle? It is, it is.”)
Comment from 龔 天 任: When a ladle is not ‘used’ as a ladle, is a ladle a ladle? Confucius was the greatest sage at that time, but no one uses him as a sage (a ladle but not a ladle). This was why that Confucius asked this question. Yet, he answered, (it is, it is). A sage will always be a sage.



#23: 宰 我 問曰:“仁者雖告之曰,井有仁焉,其從之也。”子曰:“何為其然也。君子可逝也,不可陷也,可欺也,不可罔也。”
(宰 我 asks: “when someone tells a 仁-man that there is 仁 in a deep-water-well, should he (the 仁-man) jumps into the well (killing himself).” 子 曰: “why should that be! 君 子 will investigate but not be trapped; can be lied to but not be confused.”)



#24: 子 曰:“君子博學與于文,约之以禮,亦可以弗畔矣夫。”
(子 曰: 君 子 studies many disciplines of knowledge and the literatures while digesting them according to 禮 (the rules of the society), then he will not shoot his own foot.)



#25: 子见 南 子, 子 路 不说。夫子矢之曰:“予所否者,天厭之,天厭之!”
(Confucius visited 南 子, and 子 路 was unhappy about it. Confucius swore, “If I have done any wrong, Heaven damn me, Heaven damn me.)



#26: 子 曰:“中庸之為德也,其至矣乎!民鲜久矣。”
(子 曰: “中 (be at center) and 庸 (common, not complicated) are already the top of 德 (good virtue), but no one is able to reach it (this 德) for the longest time.)



#27: 子贡曰:“如有博施于民,而能济眾,何如?可谓仁乎?”子曰:“何事于仁,必也聖乎!堯舜其猶病诸!夫仁者己欲立而立人,己欲達而達人。能近取譬,可谓仁之方也已。”
(子 贡 曰: “if one can give charities to people widely and truly help them, is he 仁?” 子 曰: “it goes beyond being 仁. He is a 聖 (only a few, about 5, such great persons at the time of Confucius). Even 堯-Emperor and 舜-Emperor (both were 聖) is not up to that snuff. For being 仁, giving other’s a good living the same as what he desires for himself. Helping other’s to get ahead the same as his own goal. These are the not far off metaphors for reaching the state of 仁.”)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Sat Mar 01, 2014 7:53 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 7:《述 而 第 七 》


#1: 子 曰:“述而不作,信而好古,竊比我于老彭。”
(子 曰: “I edit and teach without my own innovation (or revolution). I trust the knowledge of the antiquity. I would like to define myself as similar to 老 彭 (an ancient sage).”)



#2: 子 曰:“默而識之,學而不厭,诲人不倦,何有于我哉!”
(子 曰: “acquiring knowledge diligently, learning without being burnt out. Teaching others without being weary. Isn’t this what I am all about?”)



#3: 子 曰:“德之不修,學之不講,聞義不能徙,不善不能改,是吾憂也。”
(子 曰: “德 (good virtue) is not cultivated. Learning without repeated reviewing. Hearing 義 (righteous points) without following it, and not being able to right the wrongs, these are what I am worry about.”)



#4: 子之燕居,申申如也,夭夭如也。
(During the leisure time, Confucius is still as 申 申 (expanded fully) and 夭 夭 (the greatness) [in his upholding the virtues].)


#5: 子 曰:“甚矣,吾衰也久矣!吾不復夢见周公。”
(子 曰: “Worst enough! I have been weak and old for a long time now. I no longer dream about 周 公.)
Comment from 龔 天 任: 周 公 was a sage-politician who that Confucius wanted to imitate. Thus, he dreamt about him often before this time of giving up on that dream.



#6: 子 曰:“志于道,據于德,依于仁,游于藝。”
(子 曰: “set the heart on 道 (Heaven’s law), upholding 德 (good virtue), leaning on 仁, and excelling on arts.”)



#7: 子 曰:“自行束修以上,吾未嘗无诲焉。”
(子 曰: “anyone who pays the tuition, I have never declined to teach him.”)
Comment from 龔 天 任: at Confucius’ time, not everyone had the ‘right’ to be in school. As Confucius’ school was the first ‘private’ school, he broke that un-equality.



#8: 子 曰:“不愤不启,不悱不發,举一隅,不以三隅反,则不復也。”
(子 曰: “door will not be opened without pushing. Issue will not be raised without a grievance. When one ‘corner’ of a table is showed while not able to infer that there are three more corners, I will not teach him the second time.)



#9: 子食于有丧者之侧,未嘗饱也。子于是日哭,则不歌。
(When there is someone who just lost a love one around, Confucius will not eat a belly full. On that day, he will wept and not sing.)



#10: 子谓颜渊曰:“用之则行,舍之则藏,唯我與尔有是夫。”子路曰:“子行三軍,则谁與?”子曰:“暴虎冯河,死而无悔者,吾不與也。必也临事而懼,好谋而成者也。”
(Confucius spoke to 颜 渊, saying: “When our worth is valued, we will provide service. If not, go as hermits. Only you and I can be like this.” 子 路 曰: “if you are leading an army, who would you like to take with?” 子 曰: “For the one who has the ability of killing a tiger and walking across the river while not scared of death, I do not want him. I will take the one who gives great concern on every issue and makes plans for every task.” )



#11: 子 曰:“富而可求也,雖執鞭之士,吾亦為之,如不可求,從吾所好。”
(子 曰: “if wealth can help me to get what I want, I am willing to be a lowly guard to get it (the wealth). If not (get what I want), I will follow my preferences (the 仁).”)



#12: 子之所慎:齊,戰,疾。
(Confucius dislikes, 齊, war and illness).
Comment from 龔 天 任: at Confucius’ time, there is type of communist who does not value the ability and the virtue of a person but seeing all persons are with the same value. This is about 齊 (literary means ‘even-headed’), not distinguishing persons with ability and virtues.



#13: 子在齊聞韶,三月不知肉味。曰:“不图為樂之至于斯也。”
(Confucius heard about 韶 (a great music) at 齊-State, and he cannot appreciate the great taste of meat [note: Confucius was a meat eater, loving meats] for three months. And says, “not knowing that a music can reach such a height”.)



#14: 冉有曰:“夫子為衛君乎?”子贡曰:“诺,吾将問之。”入曰:“伯夷叔齊,何人也?”曰:“古之贤人也。”曰:“怨乎?”曰:“求仁而得仁,又何怨?”出曰:“夫子不為也。”
(冉 有 曰: “will Confucius work for 衛 君 (a Duke)?” 子 贡 曰: “well, I will ask.” Going in and ask, “伯 夷 and 叔 齊 (two great ancient sages), who were they?” They were the ancient sages, Confucius answered. Asking, “Did they regret about their fates?” Confucius said, “They were seeking for 仁 and got it, why should they be regretful?” 子 贡 came out and said, “Confucius will not do it.”)
Comment from 龔 天 任: for 仁, 伯 夷 and 叔 齊 died by refusing to serve their enemy; thus attained 仁 with deaths. The fate of Confucius was unable to fulfill his dream at his time. He knew it and accepted it without regret. Thus, 子 贡 knew that Confucius will not work for a small Duke for some profits.



#15: 子 曰:“饭疏食,饮水,曲肱而枕之,樂亦在其中矣。不義而富且贵,于我如浮云。”
(子 曰: “cheap food and water, using the elbow as pillow, there is joy and happiness in them. Wealth and high Statue is nothing (as the passing cloud) to me if they were obtained with not-義 (not righteous way”.)



#16: 子 曰:“加我数年,五十以學易,可以无大過矣。”
(子 曰: “I began to learn Yijing at age 50. Give me a few more years, I will no longer make big mistakes.”)
Comment from 龔 天 任: Yijing is the foundation of Confucianism. Yet, it was not well-understood by Confucius. He believed that if a person understands the Yijing completely, he will know the entire secret of this universe and will not make any error about anything. This is what this verse all about. He wrote 10 commentaries about the book of Yijing. However, he knew that he still did not wholly understand it, and he did not. Anyone who is interested in knowing more about Yijing can visit chinese-culture/about-yijing-the-general-discussions-t10.html .


#17: 子所雅言:诗、書、執禮,皆雅言也。
(Confucius speaks with high literacy: 诗 (book of poem) 、書 (book of History) 、執 禮 (book of rules of society) are all about high literacy.)



#18: 葉 公 問孔子于 子 路 ,子路不對。子曰:“汝奚不曰:其為人也,發愤忘食,樂以忘憂,不知老之将至云尔。”
(葉 公 (a Duke) asks 子 路 about Confucius. 子 路 will not answer. 子 曰: “why not answer? He (Confucius) is the one who forgets to eat while study, forgets worries with happiness and not knowing is getting old.”)



#19: 子 曰:“我非生而知之者,好古,敏以求之者也。”
(子 曰: “I am not born with all knowledge. I love ancient knowledge and study them diligently.”)



#20: 子不语:怪、力、亂、神。
(Confucius does not talk about super-nature, abusive-behaviors, chaotic-stories and about the spirits.)



#21: 子 曰:“三人行,必有我師焉,择其善者而從之,其不善者而改之。”
(子 曰: “any thee person on street, there will be a teacher for me. I follow their good points. I avoid their bad points.”)



#22: 子 曰:“天生德于予,桓雎其如予何?”
(子 曰: “I received 德 (good virtues) from Heaven. What 桓 雎 can do to me?”)



#23: 子 曰:“二三子,以我為隐乎?吾无隐乎尔,吾无行而不與二三子者,是丘也。”
(子 曰: “Hi, kids, do you think that I have been holding back on you? No, I do not. I have nothing withheld from you kids.”)



#24: 子以四教:文、行、忠、信。
(Confucius teaches four disciplines: 文 (literatures)、行 (behaviors)、忠 (be loyal)、信 (be trustworthy).)
Comment from 龔 天 任: 忠 is 中 (at center, not bias) over 心 (heart). A non-biased heart will be loyal to himself or to others.
信 is 人 (man) + 言 (words or speaking). Man’s words must be trustworthy.



#25: 子曰:“聖人,吾不得而见之矣,得见君子者斯可矣。”子曰:“善人,吾不得而见之矣,得见有恒者,斯可矣。亡而為有,虚而為盈,约而為泰,難乎有恒矣。”
(子 曰: “I have no hope of meeting a holy sage and will be happy just meeting a 君 子”. 子 曰: “I have no hope of meeting a good person and will be happy just seeing someone who is steady. It is very difficult to be steady as the dynamics is always from nothing to something, hallow to fulfilled and from simple to extravagance.”)



#26: 子 曰:“盖有不知而作之者,我无是也。多聞则其善者而從之,多见而識之,知之次也。”
(子 曰: “I have heard that there are someone who can produce something without knowing the basic. Not me. Listen more and follow the good points. Look more and try to understand them. Then, there comes the knowledge.”)



#27: 互鄉難與言,童子见,門人惑。子曰:“與其進也,不與其退也。唯何甚。人潔己以進,與其潔也,不保其往也。”
(Confucius refused of seeing 互 鄉 (a famous person) while receiving a kid. His students are confused on this. 子 曰: “when we associate with one, we cannot disassociate with him after he is gone. Why is this? People comes in with clean reputation, but it will not guarantee his past records (which we do not know).)



#28: 子 曰:“仁遠乎哉?我欲仁,斯仁至矣。”
(子 曰: “is 仁 far away? When I want 仁, it is right here.”)



#29: 陈司败問:“昭公知禮乎?”孔子曰:“知禮。”孔子退,揖巫馬期而進之,曰:“吾聞君子不党,君子亦党乎?君取于吴為同姓,谓之吴孟子。君而知禮,孰不知禮?”巫馬期以告。子曰:“丘也幸。苟有過,人必知之。”
(陈 司 败 asks: “is 昭公 (a Duke) knowing about 禮?” 孔 子 曰: Yes, he does. After Confucius is gone, 陈 司 败 invited 巫 馬 期 in with a bow, saying, “I have heard that 君 子 does not form small circle, doesn’t him? 昭 公 (the Duke) took a daughter of Mr. 吴 (the same clan as the Duke) [note: the same clan marriage was a taboo then] and gives him the Title of 吴 孟 子. Is this knowing the 禮? Then, 巫 馬 期 informed Confucius on this. 子 曰: “I am a lucky man. When I made a mistake, someone will definite notice it.”)



#30: 子與人歌而善,必使反之,而后和之。
(When Confucius likes someone’s song, he would ask them repeat a few times, then he joins in.)


#31: 子 曰:“文,莫吾猶人也?躬行君子,则吾未之有得。”
(子 曰: for literacy, I am just as good as anyone else. For being a diligent 君 子 (upholding 仁 always), I am not yet there.)



#32: 子 曰:“若聖與仁,则吾豈敢。抑為之不厭,诲人不倦,则可谓云尔已矣。”公西華曰:“正唯弟子不能學也。”
(For being 仁 and 聖 (holy sage), how dare I can claim to be. I am just trying without boring and teaching other without weariness, and that is it. 公 西 華 曰:” This is exactly what we students cannot learn.”)



#33: 子疾病, 子 路 请祷。子曰:“有诸?”子路對曰:“有之。诔曰:祷尔于上下神祗。”子曰:“丘之祷久矣。”
(Confucius got sick. 子 路 wants to pray gods for help. 子 曰: “How!” 子 路 says, “ pray to the spirits of above and below.” 子 曰: “then, I have been praying always for long time.”)



#34: 子 曰:“奢则不孫,儉则固。與其不孫也,寧固。”
(子 曰: “extravagance is showing off. Thrifty is simple. I would rather be simple than boastful.”)



#35: 子 曰:“君子坦荡荡,小人长戚戚。”
(子 曰: “君 子 is always worriless. 小 人 is always with anxiety.”)



#36: 子温而厲,威而不猛,恭而安。
(Confucius is stern while also courteous, showing authority without fierce pushing, with great manner while at ease.)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Sat Mar 01, 2014 7:54 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 8:《泰 伯 第 八 》


#1: 子 曰: “泰 伯, 其可谓至德也已矣。三以天下讓,民无得而稱焉。”
(子 曰: “泰 伯 surely had the highest 德 (good virtue), as he gave away the throne of the Empire three times while the subjects cannot critic him.”)



#2: 子 曰:“恭而无禮则勞,慎而无禮则思,勇而无禮则亂,直而无禮则绞。君子笃于親,则民兴于仁,故舊不遗,则民不偷。”
(子 曰: “polite while not according to 禮 is useless. Being careful while not according to 禮 will become timid. Being brave while not according to 禮 will become unruly. Being straightforward while without according to 禮 will be entangled. When 君 子 serves his parents, the people will follow the 仁. When he not forgets the old friends, the people will not be selfish.”)



#3: 曾 子 有疾,召門弟子曰:“启予足,启予手。诗云:’戰戰兢兢,如临深渊,如履薄冰。’而今而后,吾知免夫小子。”
(曾 子 got sick [about to die] and gathered his students, saying, “Take a look of my feet and hands [they were still no defect]. The Poem said, “Trembling in fear, as walking on the edge of a deep abyss, as walking on the thin ice. Hi, boys, from this moment, I know that I can be spared [of not hunting myself anymore]”.)
Note: In Chinese tradition, got bodily harm during one’s lifetime was a sin to parents who give us a perfect body at birth.



#4: 曾子有疾,孟敬子問之,曾子言曰:“鸟之将死,其鸣也哀,人之将死,其言也善。君子所贵乎道者三:動容貌,斯遠暴慢矣;正颜色,斯近信矣;出辭氣,斯遠鄙悖矣。笾豆之事,则有司存。”
(曾 子 got sick, 孟 敬 子 came visit. 曾 子 曰: “bird cries harshly right before its death. Man will speak true thoughts right before his death. There are thee things that 君 子 values; with sincere countenance, he will stay away from violence; with good expression, he will be trusted; with good language, he will not be lowly. For the official rites, they will be taken care by the officials.”)



#5: 曾 子 曰:“以能問于不能,以多問于寡,有若无,实若虚,犯而不校,昔者吾友,嘗從事于斯矣!”
(曾 子 曰: “the capable one learning from the incapable; the many talented learning from the lesser; the filled looks as empty; the sold looks as hallow; to be offended yet not mind. I had one old friend who was able to do the above.”)



#6: 曾 子 曰:“可以托六尺之孤,可以寄百里之命,临大節而不可奪也,君子人與?君子人也。”
(曾 子 曰: “One can be entrusted with an orphan; entrusted with people’s lives of a small State; will not blink while facing life-threaten crisis. Is he a 君 子. Yes, he is a 君 子.”)



#7: 曾 子 曰:“士不可以不弘毅,任重而道遠。仁以為己任,不亦重乎?死而后已,不亦遠乎?”
(曾 子 曰: “士 (scholar) must be resolute, as his responsibility is heavy and long way to go. With 仁 as the responsibility, isn’t it very heavy? As the responsibility will not end before death, isn’it a long way?”)



#8: 子 曰:“兴于诗,立于禮,成于樂。”
(子 曰: “starting by learning the Book of Poem [literatures]; maturing by learning the 禮 (rules of the society); perfecting by learning the 樂 [harmony of the soul].”)



#9: 子 曰:“民可使由之,不可使知之。”
(子 曰: “the people can be taught to perform, not about its underlying knowledge.”)



#10: 子 曰:“好勇疾贫,亂也。人而不仁,疾之已甚,亂也。”
(子 曰: “Playing braveness while detesting poverty will lead to unruly. Greatly upset about others of not-仁 will also lead to unruly.”)



#11: 子 曰:“如有周公之才之美,使驕且吝,其余不足觀也已。”
(子 曰: “if one has the talent as great as 周 公 (a great Duke) but is arrogant and stingy, his other qualities are of no-value.”)



#12: 子 曰:“三年學,不至于谷,不易得也。”
(子 曰: “it is not easy to find someone who has done study three years while not looking for a good pay job.”)



#13: 子 曰:“笃信好學,守死善道。危邦不入,亂邦不居,天下有道则见,无道则隐。邦有道,贫且贱焉,耻也。邦无道,富且贵焉,耻也。”
(子 曰: “diligent in learning; upholding the good 道 (Heaven’s virtue); not going into a chaotic State; not living in a unruly State; entering into politics when the State is under the proper rule; helmeting when the State is unruly. He will be ashamed of being poor and lowly when the State has a good government. He will be ashamed of being rich and with high statue if the State is in chaos.”



#14: 子 曰:“不在其位,不谋其政。”
(子 曰: “do not meddle the business which is no your own responsibility.”)



#15: 子 曰:“師挚之始,關雎之亂,洋洋乎盈耳哉!”
(子 曰: “師 挚(a great musician) begins to play while end on 關 雎 (a famous poem); how wonderful the music fills up the ears.”)



#16: 子 曰:“狂而不直,侗而不愿,倥倥而不信,吾不知之矣。”
(子 曰: “arrogant while not honest; ignorant while not admitting; without any ability while not trustworthy; I do not know what to think of such a person.”)



#17: 子 曰:“學如不及,猶恐失之。”
(子 曰: “lagging behind in learning while worrying about losing in competition.”)



#18: 子 曰:“巍巍乎,舜禹之有天下也,而不與焉。”
(子 曰: “What the greatness they were when 舜 and 禹 (two ancient Emperor) governed their Empires! Yet, they did not keep the Empires as their own properties.”)



#19: 子 曰:“大哉,堯之為君也。巍巍乎,唯天為大,唯堯则之。荡荡乎,民无能名焉。巍巍乎,其有成功也。焕乎,其有文章。”
(子 曰: “Greatness indeed as 堯 being the Emperor. The greatness of Heaven is truly great, and only 堯 can follow it. His boundless capability cannot be described by people. The greatness is about his achievements, with beauty and orderliness.”)



#20: 舜有臣五人而天下治。武王曰:“予有亂臣十人。”孔子曰:“才難,不其然乎?唐虞之际,于斯為盛,有婦人焉,九人而已。三分天下有其二,以服事殷,周之德,其可谓至德也已夫!”
(舜 (ancient Emperor) has five subordinate officials, and the Empire was in great governance. 武 王 (founding Emperor of 周-dynasty) 曰: “I have ten capable officials.” 孔 子 曰: “how difficult to get the talented people. Among those ten, there is one woman, and it was at the time of (唐 虞) a period, flourished with talented peoples. While 武 王 controlled 2/3 of the 殷-Empire while still submitted himself to the 殷-Emperor. How great the 德 of 武 王 was! It is the greatest 德, indeed.”)



#21: 子 曰: “禹 ,吾无间然矣。菲饮食而致孝乎鬼神,惡衣服而致美乎黻冕,卑宫室而盡力乎沟洫。禹,吾无间然矣!”
(子 曰: “for 禹-Emperor, I can find no fault on him. He ate simple himself while gave great and plenty offerings to the ancestors and spirits. He dressed down himself while ensuring that the robes for the rites are splendor. He lived in simple palace while building a lot of irrigation systems. For 禹, I have no bad word to say about him.”)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Sat Mar 01, 2014 7:55 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 9:《子 罕 第 九 》


#1: 子罕言利,與命與仁。
(Confucius seldom talked about 利 (interests or profit) but always about 命 (Heaven’s will) and about 仁.”)



#2: 達巷党人曰:“大哉孔子,博學而无所成名。”子聞之,谓門弟子曰:“吾何執,執御乎,執射乎?吾執御矣。”
(A man of 達 巷 (a village) said, “Great indeed, the Confucius; knowing everything but without being an expert of one thing.” Confucius heard and said to the students, “which discipline should I specialize? Driving the carriage? Specializing in archery? I will be a driver.”)



#3: 子 曰:“麻冕,禮也。今也纯,儉,吾從眾。拜下,禮也。今拜乎上,泰也。雖違眾,吾從下。”
(子 曰: “麻 冕 (a ceremonial hat, made of 麻, linen made of tree bark) is a part of 禮. Today, it is made of silk for the reason of frugality, and I accept this change. 拜 下 (prostrate at base of altar) is in accordance to 禮. Today, they kneel at top of the altar, for easier (on knees). Although going against the popular view, I will knee at the base.”)



#4: 子绝四:毋意、毋必、毋固、毋我。
(Confucius will avoid four things: not guessing, not insisting, not inflexible, and not self-centered.)



#5: 子畏于匡,曰:“文王既没,文不在兹乎。天之将丧斯文也,后死者不得與于斯文也;天之未丧斯文也,匡人其如予何!”
(Confucius was under siege at 匡 (a small State), saying, “Is it now civilized after the era of 文 王 (Father of 武 王 (founding Emperor of 周-dynasty)? If Heaven wants to end this civil-ness [that is, kill Confucius], no one in the future generations will know about it. If Heaven do not want to end this civil-ness, what the 匡-people can do to me?”)



#6: 太宰問于子贡曰:“夫子聖者與?何其多能也。”子贡曰:“固天纵之将聖,又多能也。”子聞之,曰:“太宰知我乎。吾少也贱,故多能鄙事。君子多乎哉?不多也。”牢曰:“子云:吾不试,故藝。”
(太 宰 asks 子 贡, saying: “With so many talents, is Confucius a 聖 (holy sage)?” 子 贡 曰: “with many talents, he is sent by Heaven as a 聖 indeed.” Confucius heard and said, “Does 太 宰 know about me? When young, I was lowly and thus able to do many lowly works. Should 君 子 not have many skills? No, not so.” 牢 (a student) says, “Confucius said before, I did not get a government job, so I gain many skills.”)



#7: 子 曰:“吾有知乎哉?无知也。有鄙夫問于我,空空如也,我叩其两端而竭焉。”
(子 曰: “Am I very knowledgeable? No, I am not. One illiterate asked me about what is ‘emptiness’. I searched it from both ends and still got nothing.”)



#8: 子 曰:“鳳鸟不至,河不出图,洛不出書,吾已矣夫!”
(子 曰: “the Phoenix is no longer coming; the Yellow river is no longer giving out 图; the river 洛 is no longer delivering 書. That is, I am done for.”)
Comment from 龔 天 任: according to the legends (before Confucius), 河 图 (a number system appeared in Yellow River), 洛 書 (a chart came out of the 洛-river, also a number system) were sent by Heaven to enlighten Chinese people. Indeed, they two formed the base for Yijing (see, http://www.chinese-word-roots.org/yi20001f.htm ) which was the foundation for Confucianism.



#9: 子见齊衰者、冕衣裳者與瞽者,见之,雖少必作,過之,必趨。
(When Confucius met those who are in mourning, wearing ceremonial hat and who are blind, he will standup even while they were younger than him. When passing by them, he will go out of their way fast.”)



#10: 颜渊喟然叹曰:“仰之弥高,钻之弥坚,瞻之在前,忽焉在后。夫子循循然善诱人,博我以文,约我以禮。欲罢不能,既竭吾才,如有所立卓尔。遂欲從之,末由也已。”
(颜 渊 (a student) sighed and said, “Such a height when looking up; such a hard diamond when drilling; seemingly is in the front, yet appears in behind; Confucius teaches with orderly steps; giving me wide knowledge, showing me the essence of 禮. Nonetheless, with all my efforts, I cannot reach where he stands. Simply follow him, yet I still cannot.”)



#11: 子疾病,子路使門人為臣。病閑,曰:“久矣哉,由之行诈也。无臣而為有臣,吾谁欺,欺天乎?且予與其死于臣之手也,无寧死于二三子之手乎。且予纵不得大葬,予死于道路乎?”
(Confucius got sick, 子 路 let his students be the caretaker [子 路 did not care for Confucius himself]. Getting better, Confucius said, “For longest time, 子 路 has been deceptive. Sending a caretaker while no one came, who is he trying to deceit? Me or the Heaven? Yet, would I rather die near your [my students] hands than the hands of those caretakers. Even though I might not get an elaborate funeral, I will not die at the roadside.”)



#12: 子 贡 曰:“有美玉于斯,温椟而藏诸?求善贾而沽诸?”子曰:“沽之哉,沽之哉!我待贾者也。”
(子 贡 曰: “there is a very jade. Should I save it or sell it for a good price?” 子 曰: “selling it, selling it. I am for sale myself.”)
Note: Confucius was ready for an employment.



#13: 子欲居九夷。或曰:“陋,如之何?”子曰:“君子居之,何陋之有?”
(Confucius wants to settle at 九夷 (barbarian tribes of the East). Someone says: “too uncouth, how about that?” 子 曰: “a place settled by 君 子, how it can be uncouth (anymore)?”)




#14: 子 曰:“吾自衛反鲁,然后樂正,雅颂各得其所。”
(子 曰: “after I came back to 鲁-State from the 衛-State, the 樂 (music, a part of 禮) was put right. 雅 and 颂 (two great 樂), both get their right place.”)



#15: 子 曰:“出则事公卿,入则事父兄,丧事不敢不勉,不為酒困,何有于我哉?”
(子 曰: “For a job, serving the high officials of the State; staying home, serving parents and brothers; in carrying out funerals, with all diligence; not addicted on alcohol; for one as such, what else can I critic about?”)



#16: 子在川上曰:“逝者如斯夫,不舍昼夜。”
(Standing by a river, Confucius says, “those that pass away as this (water), at day and light”.)



#17: 子 曰:“吾未见好德如好色者也。”
(子 曰: “I have not met anyone who enjoys 德 as much as enjoys the beauty of women.”)



#18: 子 曰:“譬如為山,未成一篑,止,吾止也。譬如平地,雖覆一篑,進,吾往也。”
(子 曰: “For building a big mountain, I will stop after only labored the first basket if I must stop. [Note: as the mountain making is a giant project.] For leveling the ground, I will not stop although placed only one basket dirt [as this is a job accomplishable].”)



#19: 子 曰:“语之而不惰者,其回也。”
(子 曰: “only 回 (a student) will not lose the concentration when listening to me.”)



#20: 子谓 颜 渊 曰:“惜乎!吾见其進也,未见其止也。”
(Confucius talks about 颜 渊 (a student), saying, “how sorrowful, I saw him progressing, not fulfillment [as 颜 渊 died young].”)



#21: 子 曰:“苗而不秀者有矣夫,秀而不实者有矣夫。”
(子 曰: “some green grains won’t produce husk. Some husk, yet not produce seeds.”)



#22: 子曰:“后生可畏。焉知来者之不如今也?四十五十而无聞焉,斯亦不足畏也已。”
(子 曰: “new comers have potential, as there is no way to know that they are not as good as us. Yet, when they get to 40 or 50 years of age without any achievement, they have no potential by then.”)



#23: 子 曰:“法语之言,能无從乎?改之為贵。巽與之言,能无说乎?绎之為贵。说而不绎,從而不改,吾未如之何也已矣。”
(子 曰: “How can one not follow the good advice? Better following it. How can one not happy when heard some compliment words? Better finding out the reason for compliment? For those who hear the good advice while not following and happy about the flattering words, I do not know what to do with them.”)



#24: 子 曰:“主忠信,毋友不如己者,過则勿惮改。”
(子 曰: “the key point is 忠 (be loyal) and 信 (be trustworthy). Don’t make any friend who values virtue less than you. Do not be afraid of right your own wrong.”)



#25: 子 曰:“三軍可奪帅也,匹夫不可奪志也。”
(子 曰: “the commander of Army can be captured. The ‘will’ of a person cannot be taken away.”)



#26: 子 曰:“衣敝韫袍,與衣狐貉者立,而不耻者,其由也與?不祈不求,何用不臧。”子路终身诵之。 子 曰:“是道也,何足以臧?”
(子 曰: “only 子 路 (a student) is not shamed of wearing worn-out gown while stands beside the rich people who wore splendidly. 子 路 always recites ‘not envious or desirous, how can be not good.’ 子 曰: “how can these verses make one good?”)



#27: 子 曰:“歲寒,然后知松柏之后凋也。”
(子 曰: “only at cold winter, we then know that only pine and cypress can stand the punishment [not lose their leaves].”)



#28: 子 曰:“知者不惑,仁者不憂,勇者不懼。”
(子 曰: “the wise will not be confused; the 仁-man has no anxiety; the brave is not timid.”)



#29: 子 曰:“可與共學,未可與適道;可與適道,未可與立;可與立,未可與权。”
(子 曰: “peers in learning knowledge might not be the partner on cultivating the 道 (Heaven’s virtue); the 道-partner might not be a friend on enterprise; the partner of enterprises might not be able to make a moral decision together.”)



#30: 唐棣之華,偏其反而。豈不尔思,是室遠而。子曰:“未之思也。夫何遠之有!”
(Similar to the flowers of cherry tree waving in the wind [cannot control by themselves], how can I not miss you? But your home is too far away. 子 曰: “No. He did not miss her, otherwise there is no such a thing as being too far away.”)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Sat Mar 01, 2014 7:56 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 10:《鄉 党 第 十 》


#1: 孔子于鄉党,恂恂如也,似不能言者。其在宗廟朝廷,便便言。唯谨尔。
(Confucius in a village, he was low-key, as someone who has nothing to say. Yet, he spoke intelligently in the Court while with strict discipline.)



#2: 朝,與下大夫言,侃侃如也,與上大夫言,唁唁如也。君子,椒错如也,與與如也。
(In the Court, he spoke to low officials affably to the upper rank officials frankly. For a 君子, he must interact accordingly to the situations.)



#3: 君召使摈,色勃如也,足攫如也。揖所與立,左右手,衣前后,谵如也。趨進,翼如也。賓退,必復命,曰:“賓不顾矣。”
(Working as an ambassador of the King, he must show his sincere expression and with brisk paces. When he bow to those visitors, his hands and his robe must be in accord to the protocol. When inviting the visitors in, let them in smoothly as gliding on the wings. When the visitors left, he will report to the King, saying, ‘they left happily [without looking back]’.)



#4: 入公門,鞠躬如也,如不容。立不中門,行不履阈。過位,色勃如也,足攫如也,其言似不足者。摄齊升堂,鞠躬如也,屏氣似不息者。出,降一等,逞颜色,怡怡如也。没階趨,翼如也,復其位,椒措如也。
(Entering into the Court, he bows as though the gate is too low [not allow him of standing straight]. He will not stand in the center of the Court and will not step on the threshold. When he goes in front of his Lord, he will show a sincere expression, with brisk steps and with low voice. When Court opens for session, he bows while holding his breathes. When session ends, he comes out, walking down the steps with relaxed expression. When reached the bottom step (completely out of the Court), he walks always as gliding and return to the normal composure.)



#5: 執圭,鞠躬如也,如不勝。上如揖,下如授,勃如戰色,足缩缩,如有循。享禮,有容色。私枧,愉愉如也。
(When holding an official seal, with sincere expression as that small seal were too heavy for him to carry; bowing the body while walking up or down with it, and with solemn expression while with very small steps. Yet, in the situation of 禮, his expression is comfortable. At private setting, he is relaxed.)



#6: 君子不以绀诹饰,红紫不以為亵服。當暑,诊浠裕,必表而出之。缁衣羔裘,素衣霓裘,黄衣狐裘。亵裘长,短右抉。必有寝衣,长一身有半。狐貉之厚以居。去丧无所不佩。非帷裳,必殺之。羔裘玄冠不以吊。吉月,必朝服而朝。
(君 子 does not use maroon colored silk for cuffs, not use red and purple color for underwear. In summer, he must wear an outer robe over the underwear before going out; under black jacket with lambskin; under white jacket with fawn skin; under yellow jacket with fox fur. The underwear should be long with short sleeve. The nightgown should be half long as his body’s height. The fox and badger’s fur is the best. When the period of mourning (for the dead) is over, there is no restriction on what he can wear. Other than long [curtain-like] skirts, everything else should be cut into forms. Do no wear fur coat and black hat on condolence visits. On celebrating occasions, he must wear the Court robes.)



#7: 齊,必有明衣。齊必變食,居必遷坐。
(During fasting, he must wear daily robe; with more austere diet, and must not sit at his usual spot.)



#8: 食不厭精,脍不厭细。食噎而谒,鱼馁而肉败,不食。色惡,不食。失饪,不食。不时,不食。割不正,不食。不得其酱,不食。肉雖多,不使勝食氣。惟酒无量,不及亂。沽酒市脯不食。不撤姜食。不多食。祭于公,不宿肉。祭肉,不出三日,出三日,不食之矣。食不语,寝不言。雖疏食菜羹瓜祭,必齊如也。
(Do not demand the fine food and fine cooking. Do not eat the food that is spoiled; such as, changed color or bad smell, not in season, or not being cut properly; without proper seasoning. Even while there are more meat, he will not eat more meat than rice. For the wine, there is no set limit but must not be drunk. He should not buy the meat and wine from market. Although there is more fine food on the table, he must not over eat. After a public offering ceremony, he does not keep meat overnight. For the sacrificial meat, he will not keep them more than three days. After three days, won’t eat them. Do not talk when eat or at sleep. For a rite with very little fine food offering, he will doing the same (as the above).)



#9: 席不正,不坐。
(Will not sit if the sitting mat is not set properly.)



#10: 鄉人饮酒,杖者出,斯出矣。鄉人傩,朝服而立于阼階。
(At village drinking festival, he will leave when the elders are done (left). When villagers exorcise evil spirit, he wears the official robe and stands at the stairs of ancestor’s temple [to prevent the exorcism disturbing the ancestors].)



#11: 問人于他邦,再拜而送之。康子馈药,拜而受之。曰:“丘未達,不敢嘗。”
(He bowed twice when sending off the messenger from the other State. 康 子 (a friend) gives him some medicine, he bowed before accepting it, and said, ‘not knowing its property, not dare to try.’)



#12: 厩焚,子退朝,曰:“傷人乎?”不問馬。
(The stable got fire. Confucius got back from the Court [duty], asking ‘anyone got hurt? Did not ask about the horses.’)



#13: 君赐食,必正席先嘗之。君赐腥,必熟而荐之。君赐生,必畜之。伺食于君,君祭,先饭。疾,君视之,东首,加朝服拖绅。君命召,不俟驾行矣。
(When King bestow him cooked food, he will set his sitting mat proper before eating; bestow him uncooked food, he will cook it and offer to the ancestors first; bestow him livestock, he will keep them. Eating with the King, after King made the offering to gods, he eat rice first [before any dish]. When sick and visited by King, he will lie his head facing the east with his court robe over him. When summoned by King, he will go before the carriage is ready.)



#14: 入太廟,每事問。
(Entering into the Grand Court [Temple], he asks about the 禮 on everything.)
Note: see Chapter 3: 15.



#15: 朋友死,无所歸,曰:“于我殡。”
(Friend died without any kin around. Confucius said, “I will give him a funeral.” )



#16: 朋友之馈,雖車馬,非祭肉,不拜。
(Any gift from friend, even with horse and carriage, he will not bow [for thanks] unless it is the sacrificial meat.)



#17: 寝不尸,居不容。见齊衰者,雖狎必變。见冕者與瞽者,雖亵必以貌。凶服者式之,式负版者。有盛馔,必變色而作。迅雷风烈,必變。
(Do not sleep as a corpse. Do not sit uptight at home. Meeting someone bereaved with mourning robe, showing the sincere expression even when he is a very close friend. Meeting someone with official hat or a blind, showing his respect even while he knows them very well. Meeting someone wear mourning robe, he will put his hand on the cross-bar of the carriage to show the respect, and with the same manner to the official messengers. At a great feast, he will show the solemn expression and rise on his feet. When comes thunder or strong wind, he will ready to react.)



#18: 升車,必正立執绥。車中,不内顾,不疾言,不親指。
(Getting on into a carriage, he stands upright and holding the mounting cord tight. Inside the carriage, he will not check around, not shout, not pointing.)



#19: 色斯举矣,翔而后集。曰:“山梁雌雉,时哉时哉!”子路共之,三嗅而作。
(Birds taking off while scared [seeing the sign, the 色], then gather in formation after in air [to review the situation]. Confucius said, “The female pheasant landed on the mountain top with precision, with precision.” 子 路 agreed, taking action after practicing [and reviewing the situation] three times.)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Sat Mar 01, 2014 7:57 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 11:《先 進 第 十 一 》


#1: 子 曰:“先進于禮樂,野人也。后進于禮樂,君子也。如用之,则吾從先進。”
(子 曰: “The earlier 禮 樂 were from people not totally civilized. The later 禮 樂 were produced by 君 子. For preference, I will use the earlier one.)



#2: 子 曰:“從我于陈蔡者,皆不及門也。德行:颜渊、闵子骞、冉伯牛、仲弓;言语:宰我、子贡;政事:冉有、季路;文學:子游、子夏。”
(子 曰: “Those who followed me at 陈-State and 蔡-State [period of most difficult time of Confucius] all missed the chances to be employed by States [yet, they all have great talents]. On 德 (great virtue), there are 颜 渊、 闵 子 骞、 冉 伯 牛 、仲 弓. On language art, there are 宰 我 、 子 贡. On politics, there are 冉 有 、 季 路. On literatures, there are 子 游、 子 夏.)



#3: 子 曰: “回 也,非助我者也。于吾言无所不说。”
(子 曰:回 (a student) is of no help to me [not giving me any feedback], as he is pleased with everything I said.)



#4: 子 曰:“孝哉, 闵子骞 。人不间于其父母昆弟之言。”
(子 曰: “闵 子 骞 (a student) truly a 孝 (filial piety) person. No one can stir up any bad feeling among his family (parents and brothers).”)



#5: 南容三復白圭,孔子以其兄之子妻之。
(南 容 recites the poem of 白 圭 [talking about that the defect of a pure white jade can be repaired but the dishonor of a word can never be repaired] three times. Confucius gave his brother’s daughter to 南 容 as his wife.)



#6: 季 康 子 問:“弟子孰為好學?”孔子對曰:“有颜回者好學,不幸短命死矣。今也则亡。”
(季 康 子 asks: “Which one of your students is most eager to learn?” Confucius answers, “there was 颜 回, but he died early. Now, no one.”)



#7: 颜渊死,颜路请子之車以為之椁。子曰:“才不才,亦各言其子也。鲤也死,有棺而无椁。吾不徒行以為之椁。以吾從大夫之后,不可徒行也。”
(颜 渊 died, 颜 路 (the father) asks to use Confucius’ carriage as the cover for the coffin. 子 曰: “Everyone talks that his son as someone of great important. 鲤 (son of Confucius) died with a coffin without the cover, and I did not gave him my carriage as cover [by walking on feet]. I am the descendent of nobility and cannot go without a carriage [by walking on feet].)



#8: 颜 渊 死,子曰:“噫!天丧予!天丧予!”
(颜 渊 died, 子 曰: “Alas, the Heaven has forsaken me, has forsaken me.”)



#9: 颜 渊 死,子哭之恸。從者曰:“子恸矣。”曰:“有恸乎?非夫人之為恸而谁為?”
(颜 渊 died, Confucius wept tremblingly. His followers said, “You are trembling”. Confucius answered, “Am I? Yet, if not for him, who else can I trembling for?”)



#10: 颜 渊 死,門人欲厚葬之。子曰:“不可。”門人厚葬之。子曰:“回也视予猶父也,予不得视猶子也。非我也,夫二三子也。”
(颜 渊 died, his peers want to give him a lavish funeral. 子 曰: no. They did anyway. 子 曰: “颜 渊 viewed me as his father. Yet, I cannot take him as my son. Not because that I do not want it, because of you all [as I cannot be favoritism on him only].)



#11: 季 路 問事鬼神。子曰:“未能事人,焉能事鬼?”“敢問死?”曰:“未知生,焉知死?”
(季 路 asks about how to serve the 鬼 神 (spirits or gods). 子 曰: “not knowing how to serve man yet, how can anyone know of serving spirits?” Asks again, “Can I ask about death [or after death]?” Confucius said, “not knowing how to live, how can anyone know about death?”)



#12: 闵 子 伺侧,唁唁如也。子路,行行如也。冉有、子贡,侃侃如也。子樂:“若由也,不得其死然。”
(闵 子 in attendance on Confucius, he is uptight; as for 子 路, he is in high spirit; 冉 有 and 子 贡, affable. Confucius was happy, saying: “for 子 路, he will not die with a nature cause.”)



#13: 鲁 人 為长府,闵子骞曰:“仍舊贯,如之何?何必改作。”子曰:“夫人不言,言必有中。”
(The people of 鲁-State were building a treasury house. 闵 子 骞 曰: “why not restore it? Why do a total rebuild?” 子 曰: “this guy seldom talk. Yet, when he talks, he hit the nail.”)



#14: 子 曰:“由之瑟,奚為于丘之門?”門人不敬子路。子曰:“由也升堂矣,未入于室也。”
(子 曰: “Why is 子 路’s 瑟(a music instrument) in my room?” Other students cease to respect 子 路. 子 曰: “子 路 has entered the hall, not yet into the inner most room.”)
Note: that is, in learning the Confucianism, 子 路 has gone much farther than other students.



#15: 子 贡 問:“師與商也孰贤?”子曰:“師也過,商也不及。”曰:“然则師愈與?”子曰:“過猶不及。”
(子 贡 asks: “師 and 商 (two students), which one is more 贤 (having great virtues)?” 子 曰: “師 is overshooting [the target of being 贤] ; 商 falls short.” Asks: “is then 師 better, right?” 子 曰: “overshot is no better than falling short.”)



#16: 季 氏 富于 周 公 ,而求也為之聚敛而附益之。子曰:“非吾徒也。小子鸣鼓而攻之可也。”
(The wealth of 季 氏 was much more than 周 公’s. Yet, 子 路 was helping him to gather more. 子 曰: “[子 路], not my student, you all can beat the drum and attack him.”)



#17: 柴 也愚, 参 也鲁, 師 也辟, 由 也谚。
(柴 is dumb, 参 is slow, 師 is biased, and 由 is argumentative.)



#18: 子 曰:“回也其庶乎。屡空。赐不受命,而货殖焉,亿则屡中。”
(子 曰: “回 is almost there [being a 聖 (holy sage)]. He is constantly in dire poverty. 赐 refuses to accept his fate while eagerly makes money, and he often wins his bets in investment.”)



#19: 子 张 問善人之道。子曰:“不践迹,亦不入于室。” 子 曰:“論笃是與. 君子者乎,色莊者乎.”
(子 张 asks the way of being a good person. 子 曰: “He must go beyond following the tradition. Yet, it is still not the way of entering into the hall of 聖.” 子 曰: “Being frank, it is the way of a good person. For a 君 子, he must be dignified in appearance.”)



#20: 子路問:“聞斯行诸?”子曰:“有父兄在,如之何聞斯行之?”冉有問:“聞斯行诸?”子曰:“聞斯行之。”公西華曰:“由也問聞斯行诸,子曰有父兄在。求也問聞斯行诸,子曰聞斯行之。赤也惑,敢問。”子曰:“求也退,故進之;由也兼人,故退之。”
(子 路 asks: “Should one put into action for what one just heard?” Confucius answers: “As your parents and elder brothers are still alive, how can you do that?” 冉 有 asks the same question. 子 曰: “yes, go ahead.” 公 西 華 曰: “They two asked the same question, yet get different answers. I am confused. Can I ask why?” 子 曰: “冉 有 is timid, so I encourage him. 子 路 is very hyper [as having energy of two persons], so I discourage him.”)



#21: 子畏于匡,颜渊后。子曰:“吾以汝為死矣。”曰:“子在,回何敢死?”
(Confucius was under siege in the 匡-State, and 颜 渊 stayed with him. 子 曰: “I thought that you have given up [to live].” Answer, “You Master still alive, how can I dare to die.”)



#22: 季子然問:“仲由、冉求,可谓大臣與?”子曰:“吾以子為異之問,曾由與求之問。所谓大臣者,以道事君,不可则止。今由與求也,可谓具臣矣。”曰:“然则從之者與?”子曰:“弑父與君,亦不從也。”
(季 子 然 asks: “仲 由 and 冉 求, Can they be high officials?” 子 曰: “I never expected this question from you, about 仲 由 and 冉 求. For a high official, he serve the King with 道 (the Heavenly laws). If he cannot do this, he resigns. Thus, both of them are high officials. Asking, “Will they then be obedient to the King?” 子 曰: “no, they will not obey the order for patricide or regicide.”)



#23: 子 路 使 子 羔 為费宰,子曰:“贼夫人之子。”子路曰:“有民人焉,有社稷焉。何必读書,然后為學。”子曰:“是故惡夫佞者。”
(子 路 makes 子 羔 as the chieftain of 费-city. 子 曰: “Ruining other’s son.” 子 路 曰: “There are citizens and society [traditions to follow]. Why should one must learn from books?” 子 曰: “This is why I dislike those are argumentative.”)



#24: 子路、曾皙、冉有、公西華伺坐,子曰:“以吾一日长乎尔,毋吾以也。居则曰:不吾知也。如或知尔,则何以哉?”
子路率尔對曰:“千乘之国,摄乎大国之间,加之以師旅,因之以饥馑,由也為之,比及三年,可使有勇,且知方也。”
夫子哂之:“求,尔何如?”對曰:“方六七十,如五六十,求也為之,比及三年,可使足民。如其禮樂,以俟君子。”
“赤,尔何如?”對曰:“非曰能之,愿學焉。宗廟之事,如会同,端章甫,愿為小相焉。”
“点,尔何如?”鼓瑟希,铿尔,舍瑟而作,對曰:“異乎三子者之撰。”
子曰:“何傷乎?亦各言其志也。”曰:“暮春者,春服既成,冠者五六人,童子六七人,浴乎沂,风乎舞雩,咏而歸。”夫子喟然叹曰:“吾與点也。”三子者出,曾皙后,曾皙曰:“夫三子者之言何如?”子曰:“亦各言其志也已矣。”曰:“夫子何哂由也?”曰:“為国以禮。其言不讓,是故哂之。”“唯求则非邦也與?”“安见方六七十如五六十而非邦也者?”“唯赤则非邦也與?”“宗廟会同,非诸侯而何?赤也為之小,孰能為之大!”
(子 路 、曾 皙 、冉 有 and 公 西 華 all are in attendance to Confucius. 子 曰: “Do not feel unease about the dialog simply because that I am older than you all. And, you all always say that my skill is not appreciated. Yet, it is appreciated, what will you do about?” 子 路 answers first, “If I am in charge of a midsize State which sits between super powers, troubled by invasions and by repeated famines, I can make those citizens brave and getting a sense of direction in three years.”
Confucius smiled and asks, “求, how about you?” 求 answers, “For a State with 60 to 70 square-miles (or 50 to 60, that is, a small State), I can, within three years, increase the population [to the size of midsize State]. For letting the citizens knowing about 禮 樂 (a moral society), I let other 君 子 to do that.”
Confucius asks, “赤, how about you?” 赤 answers, “Not to say that I already capable, but willing to learn. For the State-ceremonial occasions, I would like to be an assistance, properly dressed in my official robe and cap.”
Confucius asks, “点, how about you?” 点, finishing up the final note [a music that he was playing], standing up and says, “I differ from those three.”

子 曰: “What harm is in that? They just stated what their heart desires.” “In late spring, after the spring garments are made, I would like to be with a few (5, 6 or 7) adults and children bathing in the river 沂, enjoying the breeze on the rain-altar, then singing my way home.” Confucius sighed, saying, “I am with 点.”
Those students went out. 曾 皙 stayed behind, said to Confucius, “How about those three’s saying?” 子 曰: “just about their true heart desires.” 曾 皙 asked, “why did you laugh at 子 路, then?” Confucius said, “Govern the country with 禮. His did not mention that. So, I laugh at him.” But, for 求, how can a State with 60 to 70 square miles be a Dukedom [meaning, his ambition is too small for discussion, let alone be laugh at]? For 赤, he does not talk about a State but the affairs of small nobility (诸 侯). Yet, if he can only do these little thing, who else can do the big job?”

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Wed Mar 12, 2014 11:51 am
by Tienzen
Chapter 12:《颜 渊 第 十 二 》


#1: 颜渊問仁。子曰:“克己復禮為仁。一日克己復禮,天下歸仁焉。為仁由己,而由人乎哉?”颜渊曰:“请問其目。”子曰:“非禮勿视,非禮勿聽,非禮勿言,非禮勿動。”颜渊曰:“回雖不敏,请事斯语矣。”
(颜 渊 asks about 仁. 子 曰: “When everyone return the observance of 禮, there will be 仁. When one person can return to 禮 for only one day, the whole world will come back to 仁. 仁 comes from the individual, not from others. 颜 渊 曰: “Can I ask a list [about the 禮]? 子 曰: “Don’t look unless it is in accordance with 禮; not listen outside of 禮, not speak beyond 禮, not act if not permitted by 禮.” 颜 渊 曰: “Though I am not smart, I will follow your sayings.”)



#2: 仲 弓 問仁。子曰:“出門如见大賓,使民如承大祭,己所不欲,勿施于人,在邦无怨,在家无怨。”仲弓曰:“雍雖不敏,请事斯语矣。”
(仲 弓 asks about 仁. 子 曰: “In public, you should behave as though you are entertaining a very important guest. When summon person’s service [labor], you should regard it as an important issue as the State Ceremony. Do not impose anything to others if you do not want it yourself. Then, there is no grievance in the country and no complain at home.” 仲 弓 曰: “Though, I am not smart, I will follow your sayings.”



#3: 司 馬 牛 問仁。子曰:“仁者其言也仞。”曰:“其言也仞,斯谓之仁已乎?”子曰:“為之難,言之,得无仞乎?”
(司 馬 牛 asks about 仁. 子 曰: “The 仁-person, he will not be mumbling [but precise]. Asking, “Not mumbling is 仁 already?” 子 曰: “It is not easy to accomplish a job. How can one explain a big job without being precise?”)



#4: 司 馬 牛 問君子。子曰:“君子不憂不懼。”曰:“不憂不懼,斯谓之君子已乎?”子曰:“内省不疚,夫何憂何懼?”
(司 馬 牛 asks about 君 子. 子 曰: “君 子 is free from worries and fears.” Asking, “No worry or fear, is that it all about being a 君 子/”子 曰: “after a total self-reflection (introspection) without any reproach, where can any worry and fear come from?”)



#5: 司馬牛憂曰:“人皆有兄弟,吾獨亡。”子夏曰:“商聞之矣,死生有命,富贵在天。君子敬而无失,與人恭而有禮,四海之内,皆兄弟也。君子何患乎无兄弟也。”
(司 馬 牛 fussed, saying: “Others have brothers while I have none.” 子 夏 曰: “I heard you. Live or death is up to the fate; rich or poor depends on Heaven’s will. 君 子 sincere without amiss, respecting others and observing the 禮, then everyone in this world is his brothers. For 君 子, why should he worry about being no brothers?)



#6: 子 张 問明。子曰:“浸润之谮,肤受之诉,不行焉,可谓明也已矣。浸润之谮,肤受之诉,不行焉,可谓遠也已矣。”
(子 张 asks about 明 (mental perspicacity). 子 曰: “Cannot be upset by the slanders and assiduously complaints; it is 明. In fact, it is seeing far [far beyond the superficial attacks].



#7: 子 贡 問政,子曰:“足食,足兵,民信之矣。”子贡曰:“必不得已而去,于斯三者何先?”曰:“去食。自古皆有死,民无信不立。”
(子 贡 asks about 政 (politics or governing). 子 曰: “Enough food, enough security [with army] and the trust from people. That is it.” 子 贡 曰: “If I must give up one, which one of the three can go first?” Confucius says, “Let go the food, as death is inevitable always. But, no one can govern without being trusted.”)



#8: 棘子成曰:“君子质而已矣,何以文為?”子贡曰:“惜乎,夫子之说君子也。驷不及舌。文,猶质也;质,猶文也。虎豹之椁,猶犬羊之椁。”
(棘 子 成 says: “君 子 should all be about the substance, why does he need any superficial manners?” 子 贡 曰: “But, the description of 君 子 by Confucius [is very comprehensive] cannot be caught even by a term of horse. [In that description], the superficial and the substance are the same. There is no big difference by using the pelt of tiger/leopard or of sheep/dog for covering the coffin.”)



#9: 哀公問與有若曰:“年饥,用不足,如之何?”有若對曰:“合徹乎?”曰:“二,吾猶不足,如之何其徹也?”對曰:“百姓足,君孰與不足?百姓不足,君孰與足?”
(哀 公 (a Duke) asks 與 有 若, saying: “Poor harvest and cannot cover the expenditure, what should I do?” 有 若 answers: “Tax people according to the law [10%]”. Duke says, “I am now in a bind with 20% tax. How can the 10% tax get me out of this jam?” 有 若 answers: “When people is enough [not in a jam], how can a Duke be not enough? If people is not enough, who is there to give you enough?”)



#10: 子 张 問崇德辨惑。子曰:“主忠信,徙義,崇德也。愛之欲其生,惡之欲其死。既欲其生,又欲其死,是惑也。诚不以富,以祗以異。”
(子 张 asks about ‘how to uphold 德’ and ‘how to resolve 惑 (confusion, especially in giving out judgments)’. 子 曰: “For upholding 德 (high virtues), uphold 忠 (loyal to yourself and to others) 信 (be trustworthy), and always follow the 義 (righteous). For 惑 (confusion or indecisiveness), it is caused by having two contradicting feelings of loving and hating at the same time. The book of Poem says, “If not for getting rich, why draw such attentions with far-out acts? [That is, knowing the true intention, there will be no 惑.]”)



#11: 齊景公問政于孔子。孔子對曰:“君君,臣臣,父父,子子。”公曰:“善哉!信如君不君,臣不臣,父不父,子不子,雖有粟,吾得而食诸?”
(齊 景 公 (a Duke) asks about 政 (governing) from 孔 子 (Confucius). Confucius answers: “King as King, Officials as officials, Father as father, Son as son.” Duke says, “How true it is. If King acts not a king, officials not official, father not father, and son not of son, then even though there are grain available, would I be able to eat it?”)



#12: 子 曰:“片言可以折狱者,其由也與?子路无宿诺。”
(子 曰: “Taking the words of one side to make a judgment in a dispute, only 子 路 will do it, as he does not care what he has done yesterday.”)
Note: in old Chinese tradition, ‘子路无宿诺’ was interpreted differently, saying, that 子 路 is a very honest person and will not making a promise in the night before for worrying that he cannot keep them the next day. But, this interpretation will not make any sense with the sentences before it.



#13: 子 曰:“聽讼,吾猶人也,必也使无讼乎。”
(子 曰: “In hearing disputes in Court, I am the same as the other judges. Yet, the point is that to find ways of not getting disputes among people at the first place.”)



#14: 子 张 問政。子曰:“居之无倦,行之以忠。”
(子 张 asks about 政 (governing). 子 曰: “Not wearying in daily government business, and acting with sincerity.)



#15: 子 曰:“博學于文,约之以禮,亦可以弗畔矣夫。”
(The same as Chapter 6, #24)



#16: 子 曰:“君子成人之美,不成人之惡。小人反是。”
(子 曰: “君 子 helps others to get better, not to help them doing mistakes. Yet, 小 人 does the opposite.”)



#17: 季 康 子 問政于孔子。孔子對曰:“政者正也,子帅以正,孰敢不正。”
(季 康 子 (a less Duke) asks 政 (governing) from 孔 子. Confucius answers: “政 is just about being 正 (uprightness). You lead people with uprightness, then who else can be not upright.”)



#18: 季 康 子 患盗,問與孔子。孔子對曰:“苟子之不欲,雖赏之不竊。”
(季 康 子 troubled by thieves, and asked this issue from Confucius. 孔 子 answered: “For something you dislike, you cannot even give it away, let alone be stolen.”)



#19: 季康子問政于孔子曰:“如殺无道,以就有道,何如?”孔子對曰:“子為政,焉用殺。子欲善,而民善矣。君子之德風,小人之德草,草上之風,必偃。”
(季 康 子 asks 政 (governing) from 孔 子, saying: “In order to govern with 道 (Heavenly laws), I will kill those who disobey the 道. What do you think?” Confucius answers: “For governing, why kill? You lead with virtues, people will be virtuous. The 德 of is as ‘wind’. The 德 of 小 人 is as ‘weeds’. When the wind blows on the weeds, the weeds will surely bow down.”)



#20: 子张問:“士何如,斯可谓之達矣。”子曰:“何哉,尔所谓達者?”子张對曰:“在邦必聞,在家必聞。”子曰:“是聞也,非達也。夫達也者,质直而好義,察言而觀色,虑以下人。在邦必達,在家必達。夫聞也者,色取仁而行違,居之不疑,在邦必聞,在家必聞。”
(子 张 asks: “What is the standard for a 士 (a learning person) to be 達 (arrived at the destination or graduated)?” 子 曰: “What is the 達 in your definition?” 子 张 answers: “He is known in a State or in a 家 (a noble family).” 子 曰: “It is fame, not 達. For 達, it is about upright by nature and acting with 義 (righteousness), and reflecting other’s words and expressions with humbleness. Then, he will be 達, both at the 邦 (State) and 家. For fame, when he shows his 仁 without the deeds, he can still have fame everywhere.”)



#21: 樊遲從游于舞雩之下,曰:“敢問崇德修慝辨惑?”子曰:“善哉問。先事后得,非崇德與?攻其惡,无攻人之惡,非修慝與?一朝之忿,忘其身以及其親,非惑與?”
(樊 遲 was with Confucius at 舞 雩 (Rain Altar), saying: “Can I ask about 崇 德 (upholds 德), 修 慝 (not to attack the bad person) and 辨 惑 (remove confusion)?” 子 曰: “Great questions. Doing [good deed] without calculating the profit first, isn’t it 崇 德? Removing the ‘bad’ without insulting the bad person, isn’t it 修 慝? With one little upset, forgetting the safety of your own and your family, isn’t it a 惑?”)



#22: 樊遲問仁。子曰:“愛人。”問知。子曰:“知人。”樊遲不達,子曰:“举直错诸枉,能使枉者直。”樊遲推,见子夏曰:“向也吾见于夫子而問知,子曰:举直错诸枉,能使枉者直。何谓也?”子夏曰:“富哉言乎!舜有天下,選于眾,举皋陶,不仁者遠矣。汤有天下,選于眾,举伊尹,不仁者遠矣。”
(樊 遲 asks about 仁. 子 曰: “love people.” Asks about 知 (wisdom). 子 曰: “knowing the people.” 樊 遲 does not get it. 子 曰: “Place the upright over the crooked, it will make the crook becomes upright. “ 樊 遲 left and goes to see 子 夏, says: “I just asked Confucius about 知. He said, ‘Place the upright over the crooked, it will make the crook becomes upright.’ What does that mean?” 子 夏 曰: “How great a saying it is! 舜 (a great Emperor) governed the Empire and employed 皋 陶 among many candidates, the not 仁 people all left. 汤 (a great Emperor) governed the Empire and employed 伊 尹 among many candidates, then the not 仁 people all ran away.)



#23: 子贡問友。子曰:“忠告而善道之,不可则止,无自辱焉。”
(子 贡 asks about 友 (friend, persons who one associates with). 子 曰: “Those who will give you good advices on 道. If not, don’t be friend with them. You will then not be humiliated.)



#24: 曾 子 曰:“君子以文会友,以友辅仁。”
(曾 子 曰: “君 子 meets friends with manners [culture and literatures] but uses friends to improve one’s 仁.”)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Wed Mar 12, 2014 11:57 am
by Tienzen
Chapter 13:《子 路 第 十 三》


#1: 子 路 問政。子曰:“先之,勞之。”请益。子曰:“无倦。”
(子 路 asks about governing. 子 曰: “Go ahead others and give your hard works.” Asking farther elaboration. 子 曰: “Not wearisome [keep in constancy].”)



#2: 仲 弓 為 季 氏 宰,問政。子曰:“先有司,赦小過,举贤才。”曰:“焉知贤才而举之?”曰:“举尔所知,尔所不知,人其舍诸?”
(仲 弓 as the chief-staff of 季 氏, he asks about governing. 子 曰: “Go before other officials [set examples]; lenient on others’ minor errors; promote talented people.” Asking, “How to know who is the talented one?” Answers: “Promote those who you know. Will other bosses pass those who you do not know? [Of course, not. That is, anyone who is talented will already be known.]”)



#3: 子路曰:“衛君待子而為政,子将奚先?”子曰:“必也正名乎。”子路曰:“有是哉,子之迂也。奚其正?”子曰:“野哉由也。君子于其所不知,盖阙如也。名不正则言不顺,言不顺则事不成,事不成则禮樂不興,禮樂不興则刑罚不中,刑罚不中则民无所措手足。故君子名之必可言也,言之必可行也。君子于其言,无所苟而已矣。”
(子 路 says: “衛 君 (a Duke) wants you to be the governor, what will you implement first?” 子 曰: “As first, giving the proper name or title according to the context.” 子 路 曰: “Why is that so? Confucius is just too outdated. What title/context must be rectified?” 子 曰: “Rascal, 子 路. 君 子 will keep his mouth shut if he is ignorant about something. If Title/context is not matching correctly, he has no authority [being not making sense] to speak his words. Without authority in words [orders], that task [requested in those words] cannot be done. When tasks are not accomplished, then 禮 樂 cannot be properly set up. Without 禮 樂, there will be no fair judgment on demeanors. Without a fair judgment, people will not know how to behave. Thus, the name/context of 君 子 must be making sense. Then, his words [must make sense with authority] must be executed and carried out. Thus, for his words, 君 子 will not take it causally and lightly.”)



#4: 樊遲请學稼,子曰:“吾不如老農。”请學為圃,曰:“吾不如老圃。”樊遲出,子曰:“小人哉,樊须也。上好禮,则民莫敢不敬;上好義,则民莫敢不服;上好信,则民莫敢不用情。夫如是,则四方之民,襁负其子而至矣。焉用稼?”
(樊 遲 wants to learn about 稼 (agriculture, growing grains). 子 曰: “I am no as knowledgeable as an old farmer.” Asks about 圃 (gardening). Confucius says, “I am not as good as an old gardener.” 樊 遲 left, and 子 曰: “樊 遲 is just a 小 人 [pitiful]. When leader upholds 禮, no one can be rude. When leader upholds 義, no one will be defiance. When leader upholds 信, no one will be insincere. With these, people from all directions will go with their family [carrying baby on their back]. Why is 稼 needed [as 稼 is the strong suit of those people already, not a job of a leader]?”)



#5: 子 曰:“诵诗三百,授之以政,不達,使于四方,不能專對,雖多,亦奚以為.”
(子 曰: “For those who learned all 300 poems from the Book of Poem (Ode), but fails in government, fails as an ambassador. Let him learn more, and it won’t make any difference [meaning, the 300 poems will be enough for a man to knowledge the ways of governing].”



#6: 子 曰:“其身正,不令而行;其身不正,雖令不從。”
(子 曰: “If a person is righteous himself, he will be followed without giving out orders. If one is not righteous, no one will follow his order.”)



#7: 子 曰:“鲁衛之政,兄弟也。”
(子 曰: “The policy [governing] of 鲁-State and 衛-State is similar.”



#8: 子谓 衛公子荆:“善居室,始有,曰苟合矣;少有,曰苟完矣;富有,曰苟美矣。”
(Confucius talks to 衛 公 子 (荆, a prince of 衛-State), says: “Using house as a metaphor. Without a house, a shed is good enough. After more additions, he feels that it is now adequate. Yet, when he gets rich, only sumptuous can be called beauty.”)



#9: 子適衛,冉有僕,子曰:“庶矣哉。”冉有曰:“既庶矣,又何加焉?”曰:“富之。”曰:“既富矣,又何加焉?”曰:“教之。”
(Confucius went to 衛-State, 冉 有 drove for him. 子 曰: “A flourish State.” 冉 有 曰: “What else can be added on flourish?” Answers: “Prosper.” Asks, “What else on top of prosper?” Answers: “Teach them.”)



#10: 子 曰:“苟有用我者,期月而已可也,三年有成。”
(子 曰: “If anyone [king or duke] employs me, I will show a great result in one year and with great accomplishment in three years.”)



#11: 子 曰:“善人為邦百年,亦可以勝残去殺矣。诚哉,是言也。”
(子 曰: “If a State is governed by a good Statesman for one hundred years, there should be no rascals or any killings. How true this statement truly is!”)



#12: 子 曰:“如有王者,必世而后仁。”
(子 曰: “Even with a great King, it will take 30 years to reach the state of 仁 [in society].”)



#13: 子 曰:“苟正其身矣,于從政乎何有?不能正其身,如正人何?”
(子 曰: “If one is upright, what is the difficulty for governing? If one is not upright, how can he make others upright?”)



#14: 冉子退朝, 子 曰:“何晏也?”對曰:“有政。”子曰:“其事也如有政,雖不吾以,吾其與聞之。”
(冉 子 (an official) came back from the Court [business]. 子 曰: “Why so late?” Answer, “There are some governing issues.” 子 曰: “Can I hear about if they are the governing issues although I am no longer an official?”)



#15: 定公問:“一言而可以興邦,有诸?”孔子對曰:“言不可以若是其幾也。人之言曰:為君難,為臣不易。如知為君之難也,不幾乎一言而興邦乎?”曰:“一言而丧邦,有诸?”孔子對曰:“言不可以若是其幾也。人之言曰: ‘予无樂乎為君,唯其言而莫予違也。’如其善而莫之違也,不亦善乎?如不善而莫之違也,不幾乎一言而丧邦乎?”
(定 公 (a Duke) asks: “Is there a single statement lead the country to prosperity?” Confucius answers: “How many statements say that there is no such a saying?” Someone said, ‘It is hard to be a King, not ease to be an official neither. By knowing the statement of ‘hard to be a King’, isn’t it a single statement which can give prosperity to the country?” Asks, “Is there a single statement which can perish the country?” Confucius answers: “How many statements say that there is no such a saying? Someone said: ‘I do not enjoy to be a King, but no one will disobey my saying.’ If everyone is obeying his good saying, it will be fine. If everyone is obeying his evil saying, isn’t that one saying will lead the country to ruin?)



#16: 葉公問政。子曰:“近者说,遠者来。”
(葉 公 asks about governing. 子 曰: “[Ensure that] you subjects are happy, the people far [foreigners] will come [immigrate].”)



#17: 子 夏 為 苣 父 宰,問政。子曰:“无欲速,无见小利,欲速则不達,见小利则大事不成。”
(子 夏 as the chieftain of 苣 父 (a county) asks about governing. 子 曰: “Do not move too fast and not to seek the pity profit. You will miss the target [goal] by in a hurry and cannot accomplish the big job by seeking the puny profit.”)



#17: 葉 公 语孔子曰:“吾党有直躬者,其父攘羊,而子证之。”孔子曰:“吾党之直者異于是,父為子隐,子為父隐,直在其中矣。”
(葉 公 (a Duke) talks to Confucius, says: “In my village, there is one upright man who testified against his father for stolen a sheep.” 孔 子 曰: “In my village, the uprightness is different. The father will cover up for son and vise-verse, and the uprightness is then in this.”)



#18: 樊 遲 問仁。子曰:“居處恭,執事敬,與人忠,雖之夷狄,不可棄也。”
(樊 遲 asks about 仁. 子 曰: “恭 (sincere in attitude and in manners) at home; 敬 (diligent and careful) while doing a job; 忠 (loyal and trustworthy) to others. These morals should not be put aside even when you are among barbarians.”)



#19: 子贡問曰:“何如斯可谓之士矣?”子曰:“行己有耻,使于四方,不辱君命,可谓士矣。”曰:“敢問其次。”曰:“宗族稱孝焉,鄉党稱悌焉。”曰:“敢問其次。”曰:“言必信,行必果,胫胫然小人哉,抑亦可以為次矣。”曰:“今之從政者何如?”子曰:“噫!斗屑之人,何足算也。”
(子 贡 asks: “What should one accomplish before he can be called as a 士 (learned scholars)?” 子 曰: “The one who has the sense of shame and is able to accomplish the tasks (which are given by the King) as an ambassador can then be called as a 士.” Asks: “Can I ask what the level below that is?” Confucius says: “The one is praised as 孝 (filial piety) by the family and as 悌 (kind to brethren) by the village people.” Asks: “What is the next (lower) level?” Answers: “Words are trustworthy; actions are having definite results; even while he is a 小 人 (morally inferior person), he can be called as a 士 at this level.” Asks: “How about the leaders of today in government?” Answers: “Oh, the incapable persons, they cannot be counted.”)



#20: 子 曰:“不得中行而與之,必也狂狷乎!狂者進取,狷者有所不為也。”
(子 曰: “Cannot find associates who act properly, I can settle with someone who is either 狂 (big head) and 狷 (over scrupulous). The 狂 is aggressive in enterprising, the 狷 will not do anything improper.”)



#21: 子 曰:“南人有言曰:人而无恒,不可以作巫醫。善夫!”不恒其德,或承之羞。子曰:“不占而已矣。”
(子 曰: “The Southerner has a saying: ‘without constancy, one cannot be a shaman.’ A great saying.” Without constancy in 德 (great virtues), one will encounter errors (shames). 子 曰: “Then, there will be no oracle [as won’t be meaningful].”)



#22: 子 曰:“君子和而不同,小人同而不和。”
(子 曰: “君 子 agrees in issues without being a buddy; 小 人 acts as buddy but disagrees in many issues.”)



#23: 子 贡 問 曰:“鄉人皆好之,何如?”子曰:“未可也。”“鄉人皆惡之,何如?”子曰:“未可也。不如鄉人之善者好之,其不善者惡之。”
(子 贡 asks: “He is liked by all villagers; what do you think of him.” 子 曰: “not good.” Asks: “He is disliked by all villagers; how about that?” 子 曰: “not good. It should be better that all good men in the village like him while all bad persons dislike him.”)



#24: 子 曰:“君子易事而難说也。说之不以其道,不说也;及其使人也,器之。小人難事而易说也。说之雖不以道,说之;及其使人也,求備焉。”
(子 曰: “It is easy to serve 君 子 but not easy to ‘please’ him. He will not be pleased by improper ways [such as, flattering or bribing]. He employs people only reviewing their capability. It is difficult to serve 小人 but is easy to please him. He will be pleased by any improper way [such as flattering or bribing]. For employing people, he demands perfection.”)



#25: 子 曰:“君子泰而不驕,小人驕而不泰。”
(子 曰: “君 子 is friendly without arrogant; 小 人 is not friendly but very arrogant.”)



#26: 子 曰:“剛毅木讷,近仁。”
(子 曰: “Being upright, resoluteness and without a running mouth, it will be close to 仁.”)



#27: 子 路 問曰:“何如斯可谓之士矣?”子曰:“切切、缌缌、怡怡如也,可谓士矣。朋友切切缌缌,兄弟怡怡。”
(子 路 asks: “What should one do to be called as a 士 (learned scholar)?” 子 曰: “always learning, very careful and always pleasant, he is then a 士. Mutually learning among friends and pleasant among brethren.”)



#28: 子 曰:“善人教民七年,亦可以卽戎矣。”
(子 曰: “After a good politician leads people for seven years, people will give their lives to protect their leader.”)



#29: 子 曰:“以不教民戰,是谓棄之。”
(子 曰: “To send people to war untrained is to trash them.”)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Wed Mar 12, 2014 11:57 am
by Tienzen
Chapter 14:《憲 問 第 十 四 》


#1: 憲 問耻。子曰:“邦有道,穀。邦无道,穀,耻也。”
(憲 asks about 耻 (being ashamed). 子 曰: “Take the salary when the country is governed properly. Taking the salary when the country in disarray, it is 耻.”)



#2: “克伐怨欲,不行焉,可以為仁矣?”子曰:“可以為難矣。仁,则吾不知也。”
(“Is the one (who is not aggressive, not bragging, not greedy) 仁?” 子 曰: “Indeed, it is not easy. For being 仁 or not, I do not know [don’t think so].”)



#3: 子 曰:“士而懷居,不足以為士矣。”
(子 曰: “A man who is bound in home [not being able to go out the world] cannot be a 士 (learned scholar, often be the official in government).”



#4: 子 曰:“邦有道,危言危行,邦无道,危行言孫。”
(子 曰: “When the country is governed properly, speaking and acting with high cautions; when the country is in disarry, acting with high cautions while speaking very humbly.”)



#5: 子 曰:“有德者必有言,有言者不必有德;仁者必有勇,勇者不必有仁。”
(子 曰: “His saying is valuable if he has 德 (great virtues). Yet, those who have great sayings need not to have 德. For the 仁-man, he will definitely be a courageous man. For a brave man, he needs not to have 仁.”)



#6: 南 宫 適 問于孔子曰:“羿善射,鏖荡舟,俱不得其死然,禹稷耕稼,而有天下。”夫子不答。南宫適出,子曰:“君子哉若人,尚德哉若人。”
(南 宫 適 asks Confucius, saying: “羿 was a great archer; 鏖 could drive boat on dry land. Yet, both got unnatural death. 禹 and 稷 practiced agriculture and gained an Empire each.” Confucius did not respond. 南 宫 適 went out, and 子 曰: “Such a 君 子 who looks up to the 德,”)



#7: 子 曰:“君子而不仁者有矣夫,未有小人而仁者也。”
(子 曰: “Some 君 子 might be not-仁; yet, there is case that a 小 人 who is 仁.”)



#8: 子 曰:“愛之能勿勞乎?忠焉能无诲乎?”
(子 曰: “Can anyone refuse to take care [with services or hard labors] the one he loves? Can anyone not to stop wrong doings [with advices] from someone who is loyal to?”)



#9: 子 曰:“為命,裨谌草創之,世叔讨論之,行人子羽修饰之,东里子產润色之。”
(子 曰: “Setting the diplomatic policy, 裨 谌 (an official) drafts it, 世 叔 comments on it, 子 羽 (a diplomat) elaborates it, 子 產 embellishes it.)



#10: 或 問 子 產 。子曰:“惠人也。”問子西。曰:“彼哉彼哉。”問管仲。曰:“人也, 奪伯氏骈邑三百,饭疏食,没齒,无怨言。”
(Someone asks about 子 產. 子 曰: “A generous man.” Asks about 子 西. Answer: “A man, a man.” Asks about 管 仲. Answer: “A great man. The three hundred people of 伯 氏 (a lesser Duke) were given to 管 仲 [by the Duke of 齊] as subjects. They have no complain to the end of their lives although without adequate food.”)



#11: 子 曰:“贫而无怨難,富而无驕易。”
(子 曰: “In poverty, it is not easy of not complaining. It is not too difficult of being not arrogant while is wealthy.”)



#12: 子 曰:“孟公绰,為趙魏老,则優; 不可以為滕薛大夫。”
(子 曰: “孟 公 绰 [without great governing ability] can do a great job as the governor of 趙-State or 魏-State but is not suitable as governor for the 滕-State or 薛-State.”)



#13: 子路問成人。子曰:“若臧武仲之知,公绰之不欲,卞莊子之勇,冉求之藝,文之以禮樂,亦可以為成人矣。”曰:“今之成人者何必然。见利思義,见危授命,久要不忘平生之言,亦可以為成人矣。”
(子 路 asks about 成 人 (a perfect man). 子 曰: “With the wisdom of 臧 武 仲, not greedy as 孟 公 绰, courageous as 卞 莊 子, skillful as 冉 求, and well-trained in 禮 樂; he can then be a perfect man.” Confucius says again, “Yet, there is no need for all the above nowadays. Thinks about 義 when seeing profit [could take it or not]; accept challenge when facing dangerous while not forgetting the commitment which he made all his life [during the non-strenuous time]; he can also be a perfect man.”)



#14: 子問公叔文子于公明贾曰:“信乎夫子不言不笑不取乎。”公明贾對曰:“以告者過也,夫子时然后言,人不厭其言。樂然后笑,人不厭其笑。義然后取,人不厭其取。”子曰:“其然。豈其然乎!”
(Confucius asks 公 明 贾 about 公 叔 文 子, saying: “Is it true that your master does not speak to much, not laugh, not taking [something not supposed to be taken]?”Answers: “It is exaggeration of rumors. He spoke when the time [situation] demands, and people is not tired of his sayings. Laughing at happy occasions, and people is not dislike his laughter. Taking when it is in accord to 義, and people has no issue on his taking.” 子 曰: “Is that so? Perhaps, not [not as good as those descriptions].”)



#15: 子 曰:“臧武仲,以防求為后于鲁,雖曰不要君,吾不信也。”
(子 曰: “臧 武 仲 demands the territory 防 as the fief for supporting the King of 鲁. If anyone says that this is not a ransom, I do not take it.”)



#16: 子 曰:“晋文公谲而不正,齊桓公正而不谲。”
(子 曰: “晋 文 公 (a Duke) is trickery, not upright; 齊 桓 公 is upright, not trickery.”)



#17: 子 路 曰:“桓公殺公子纠,召忽死之,管仲不死。曰:未仁乎?”子曰:“管仲九合诸侯,不以兵車,管仲之力也。如其仁,如其仁!”
(子 路 曰: “桓 公 killed the Prince 纠, 召 忽 died for the Prince while 管 仲 did not. Is 管 仲 not 仁?” 子 曰: “管 仲 [with his power alone] summoned the dukes of other States nine times without using force. This is 仁, is 仁.”)



#18: 子贡曰:“管仲非仁者與?桓公殺公子纠,不能死,又相之。”子曰:“管仲相桓公,霸诸侯,一匡天下,民到于今受其赐。微管仲,吾其披發左衽矣。豈若匹夫匹婦之為谅也,自經于沟渎,而莫之知也。”
(子 贡 曰: “Should 管 仲 be not-仁? 桓 公 killed the Prince 纠 [the master of 管 仲], and he did not die for his master while became the Chief-staff of 桓 公.” 子 曰: “管 仲 assisted 桓 公 to lead all other lords and making a unified and peaceful world. The people of the world still benefit from his work. Without 管 仲, I will be ruled by barbarians. How can he be like the common people who suicide in a ditch [for their master] while making no difference to this world?”)



#19: 公 叔 文 子 之臣大夫 撰 ,與文子同升诸公. 子聞之曰:“可以為文矣。”
(撰 (One subordinate of 公 叔 文 子) was promoted in the same rank as 文 子. Confucius heard and says: “He (撰) deserves this.”)



#20: 子言 衛 靈 公 之无道也,康子曰:“夫如是,奚而不丧?”孔子曰:“仲叔圉治賓客,祝砣治宗廟,王孫贾治軍旅,夫如是,奚其丧?”
(Confucius talks about the lacking of 道 (moral principle) of 衛 靈 公. 康 子 曰: “As such is! Why is he not ousted?” 孔 子 曰: “仲 叔 圉 is handling diplomatic issues, 祝 砣 handling the 宗 廟 (the symbol of ruling power), 王 孫 贾 handling the armed forces. With these, how can he be ousted?”)



#21: 子 曰:“其言之不怍,则為之也難。”
(子 曰: “The immodest claims will be difficult to fulfill.”)



#22: 陈成子弑简公,孔子沐浴而朝,告于哀公曰:“陈恒弑其君,请讨之。”公曰:“告夫三子。”孔子曰:“以吾從大夫之后,不敢不告也。”君曰:“告夫三子者。”之三子告,不可。孔子曰:“以吾從大夫之后,不敢不告也。”
(陈 成 子 murdered 简 公 (a Duke). Confucius cleansed himself than went to Court, saying to 哀 公 (a Duke): “陈 恒 murdered his King, please arrest him [with armed forces].” Answers: “Go tell the three Lords.” Confucius says: “As a 大 夫 (who upholds the ethics), I must tell you this.” Duke says: “Go tell the three.” Confucius went to the three Lords and made the request. They refused. Confucius says [to himself]: “As a 大 夫, I must tell you this.”)



#23: 子 路 問事君,子曰:“勿欺也,而犯之。”
(子 路 asks about how to serve the King. 子 曰: “Do not tell him lies. Then, you can advise [even with some harsh words] him.”)



#24: 子 曰:“君子上達,小人下達。”
(子 曰: “君 子 reaches for the Heavenly virtues, 小 人 for Earthly desires.”)



#25: 子 曰:“古之學者為己,今之學者為人。”
(子 曰: “In antiquity, man studied for himself. Today, man studies to impress others.”)



#26: 遽 伯 玉 使人于孔子,孔子與之坐而問焉,曰:“夫子何為?”對曰:“夫子欲寡其過而未能也。”使者出,子曰:“使乎使乎!”
(遽 伯 玉 sent a messenger to see Confucius. Confucius sits with him and asks: “How are your master doing?” Answers: “He would like to reduce his wrong doings but is incapable of that.” After the messenger left, Confucius says: “What a messenger, what a messenger!”)



#27: 子 曰:“不在其位,不谋其政。”
(子 曰: “Do not meddle the policy if you are not holding that responsibility.”)



#28: 曾 子 曰:“君子思不出其位。”
(曾 子 曰: “君 子 does not concern the issues outside of his own office.”)



#29: 子 曰:“君子耻其言而過其行。”
(子 曰: “君 子 is ashamed of that his claim is more than he can fulfill.”)



#30: 子 曰:“君子道者三,我无能焉。仁者不憂,知者不惑,勇者不懼。”子贡曰:“夫子自道也。”
(子 曰: “There are three important 道 for a 君 子, while I (Confucius) can do none. [These three are] 仁-man does not have anxiety; Wiseman will not be confused; the courage one will not have fear.” 子 贡 曰: “These are the description of Confucius himself.”)



#31: 子 贡 方人,子曰:“赐也贤乎哉,夫我则不暇。”
(子 贡 is grading people [on their morals]. 子 曰: “Is 子 贡 such a 贤 [people with great virtues]. I do not have the time to do this [grading].”)



#32: 子 曰:“不患人之不己知,患其不能也。”
(子 曰: “Do not worry about that you are not known. Do worry about that you have nothing to get fame about.”)



#33: 子 曰:“不逆诈,不億不信,抑亦先觉者,是贤乎!”
(子 曰: “The one who is not fraudulent, not doubting and not non-trustworthy while he can still know about those things of others in advance is truly a 贤 (high virtue person).”)



#34: 微 生 畝 谓孔子曰:“丘何為是栖栖者與?无乃為佞乎?”孔子曰:“非敢為佞也,疾固也。”
(微 生 畝 says to Confucius: “Why you are so restless [busy visiting among Dukes]? [Trying to beg for a job] with flattering. 孔 子 曰: “Dare not for flattering. Just being stubborn [on trying to change this world].”)



#35: 子 曰:“骥不稱其力,稱其德也。”
(子 曰: “骥 (a super horse) is praised with its 德 (virtue), not with its strength.”)



#36: 或 曰:“以德报怨,何如?”子曰:“何以报德?以直报怨,以德报德。”
(Someone says: “Repay an injury with 德 (good deeds and hearts), How about that?” 子 曰: “Then, how can you repay the 德? Repay an injury with fairness. Repay the 德 with 德.”)



#37: 子 曰:“莫我知也夫!”子贡曰:“何為其莫知子也?”子曰:“不怨天,不尤人,下學而上達,知我者其天乎!”
(子 曰: “No one understands me.” 子 贡 曰: “What about you is not understood by others?” 子 曰: “I do not complain about the fates, nor blame on people. I learn from the basic and all the way to the ultimate [that is, encompassing everything]. Thus, only the Heaven understand me.”)



#38: 公伯寮诉子路于季孫,子服景伯以告曰:“夫子固有惑志于公伯寮,吾力猶能肆诸市朝。”子曰:“道之将行也與,命也;道之将廢也與,命也。公伯寮其如命何!”
(公 伯 寮 spoke ill of 子 路 to 季 孫. 子 服 景 says: “My master (季 孫) does not trust the words of 公 伯 寮, and I have the power to kill him [placing the corpse at the market].” 子 曰: “If the 道 (Heavenly moral laws) is prosper, it is the result of Heaven’s will. If not, also Heaven’s will. How can a 公 伯 寮 change the Heaven’s will?”)



#39: 子 曰:“贤者辟世,其次辟地,其次辟色,其次辟言。” 子 曰:“作者七人矣。”
(子 曰: “The 贤 (with great virtues) goes out of the society [if the society is in chaos] first; then goes away from a place [a country of in ruin] second; avoid the place of having too many mean people, the third; and goes away from a place with wrong sayings, the last.” 子 曰: “Now, seven people have done so [going away].”)



#40: 子 路 宿于石門,晨門曰:“奚自?”子路曰:“自孔氏。”曰:“是知其不可而為之者與?”
(子 路 lodged at 石門 (Stone gate). The gatekeeper asks: “Where from?” Answers: “From Confucius.” Gatekeeper says: “Is the one who keep trying [to change the world] while knowing it is impossible?”)



#41: 子擊磬于衛,有荷蒉而過孔氏之門者,曰:“有心哉,擊磬乎?”既而曰:“鄙哉,铿铿乎。莫己知也,斯已而已矣。深则厲,浅则揭。”子曰:“果哉,末之難矣。”
(While Confucius plays Stone chimes in the 衛-State, a man who carries a basket passes his gate, says: “Having a heart [showing his will] for playing the chimes.” Then, says again: “Lowly, the terrible sounds. If no one gives a damn about you [knowing you], then gives it up. When the water is deep, wet your dress when crossing. When water is shallow, lift your dress [keep it dry] while crossing.” 子 曰: “He is resolute, and I cannot argue [disagree] with him.”)



#42: 子 张 曰:“書云:高宗谅陰,三年不言。何谓也?”子曰:“何必高宗,古之人皆然。君薨,百官总己以聽于冢宰,三年。”
(子 张 曰: “The book of History says: ‘高 宗 (an Emperor) mourned three years in silence.’ What does that mean?” 子 曰: “Not just 高 宗, the ancients all did this. When King passed away, the officials will follow the order of the prime minister for three years [as the new King will be in mourning for those three years in silence].”)



#43: 子 曰:“上好禮,则民易使也。”
(子 曰: “When the ruler uphold the 禮, the subjects can be governed easily.”)



#44: 子路問君子。子曰:“修己以敬。”曰:“如斯而已乎?”曰:“修己以安人。”曰:“如斯而已乎?”曰:“修己以安百姓。修己以安百姓,堯舜其猶病诸?”
(子 路 asks about 君 子. 子 曰: “With introspection to gain sincerity.” Asks: “Is that it?” Answers: “With introspection to bring peace to others.” Asks: “Is that all?” Answers: “With introspection to bring good life to all people. Even 堯-Emperor and 舜-Emperor could not reach this.”)


#45: 原 壤 夷俟,子曰:“幼而不孫悌,长而无述焉,老而不死,是為贼。”以杖叩其胫。
(原 壤 sits like a barbarian. 子 曰: “Not a good kid when young, no accomplishment when grown, not dead when got old, this is called as 贼 (a thief or a pest). Confucius beats his shin with the cane.”)



#46: 阙党童子将命,或問之曰:“益者與?”子曰:“吾见其居于位也,见其與先生并行也,非求益者也,欲速成者也。”
(Confucius sent a boy of 阙 党 (a village) as messenger. Someone asks: “Is he the one ready for progress?” 子 曰: “I saw him sat with the seniors. He is the one trying the shortcut, not for progress.”)
Note: the task as a messenger is trying to pull him back from the shortcuts.

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Wed Mar 12, 2014 11:58 am
by Tienzen
Chapter 15:《衛 靈 公 第 十 五》


#1: 衛靈公問陈于孔子。孔子對曰:“俎豆之事,则嘗聞之矣。軍旅之事,未之學也。”明日遂行。在陈绝粮,從者病,莫能興。子路愠见曰:“君子亦有窮乎?”子曰:“君子固窮,小人窮斯滥矣。”
(衛 靈 公 asks Confucius about the battle formation [during war]. Confucius answers: “I have heard about procedure of rites. For military issues, I have not learned.” Confucius left the next day. In the 陈-State, the food supplies run out, and his followers all got ill and could not get up. 子 路 was upset and says: “Can 君 子 also have such a dire situation?” 子 曰: “君 子, of course, has times of in extreme straits. Yet, 小 人 will go beyond law when he is in such a dire situation.”)



#2: 子 曰:“赐也,如以予為多學而識之者與?”對曰:“然。非與?”曰:“非也。予一以贯之。”
(子 曰: “赐 (a student), do you think that I am knowledgeable about many [every] things?” Answers: “Yes. Is it not so?” Confucius says: “No, I am not. I just put them all together with the ‘first’ principle.”)



#3: 子 曰:“由,知德者鲜矣。”
(子 曰: “由 (a student), there are not many understood the 德 (great virtues).”



#4: 子 曰:“无為而治者,其舜也與! 夫何為哉。恭己正南面而已矣。”
(子 曰: “Governing without effort, only 舜-Emperor can do it. How he did? Disciplining himself as a ruler, that is it.”)
Note: 南 面 (facing south) means to be a ruler.



#5: 子张問行。子曰:“言忠信,行笃敬,雖蛮貊之邦行矣。言不忠信,行不笃敬,雖州里行乎哉?立,则见其参于前也;在舆,则见其倚于衡也。夫然后行。”子张書诸绅。
(子 张 asks about how to behave [in going around the world]. 子 曰: “Speaking 忠 (be loyal) and 信 (be trustworthy). Acting 笃 (honest) and 敬 (sincere). Then, you will face no problem even in the land of barbarians. If speaking not 忠 信, acting not 笃 敬, can you live peacefully even in your own neighborhood? When standing, you should see these words in front of you. When riding in carriage, you should see those words lean against the handle-bar. With this, you can then go around the world.” 子 张 wrote this down on his sash.)



#6: 子 曰:“直哉史鱼。邦有道如矢,邦无道如矢。君子哉遽伯玉。邦有道则仕,邦无道则可卷而懷之。”
(子 曰: “How truly upright 史 鱼 is! He acts as a straight arrow when the government is orderly [道 is respected], and the same when the government is in chaos. How truly a 君 子 that 遽 伯 玉 is! He comes out to serve when the government is orderly, and goes away when the 道 (heavenly moral) is not respected.”)



#7: 子 曰:“可與言而不與之言,失人;不可與言而與之言,失言。知者不失人,亦不失言。”
(子 曰: “If a man is worthy of talking with but without do so, you lost a man. If you talk to a man who is not worthy of talking with, you waste your talk. The Wiseman does not lost man nor waste words.”)



#8: 子 曰:“志士仁人,无求生以害仁,有殺身以成仁。”
(子 曰: “For 志 士 (learned scholar) and 仁-man, they will not abandon 仁 for saving their lives but will give up their lives in order to preserve the 仁.”)



#9: 子 贡 問為仁。子曰:“工欲善其事,必先利其器。居是邦也,事其大夫之贤者,友其士之仁者。”
(子 贡 asks about 仁. 子 曰: “For perfecting his work, one must sharpen his tools first. At a country, serving the good official and friendly with the 仁-people.”)



#10: 颜 渊 問為邦。子曰:“行夏之时,乘殷之辂,服周之冕,樂则韶舞。放鄭聲,遠佞人。鄭聲淫,佞人殆。”
(颜 渊 asks about how to govern a country. 子 曰: “Follow the calendar of 夏-dynasty; ride the carriage of 殷-dynasty, wear the ceremonial hat of 周-dynasty. For the music, use only the 韶-music, and banish the music of 鄭-people. And, stay away from people who excels in flattering. The 鄭-music is lusty and the flattering person is dangerous.”)



#11: 子 曰:“人无遠虑,必有近憂。”
(子 曰: “The one who does not think though the difficulty in the future will have worries right around corners.”)



#12: 子 曰:“已矣乎!吾未见好德如好色者也。”
(子 曰: “That is it [I give it up]. I have not seen anyone who enjoys 德 at the same level of enjoying the beauty of woman.”)



#13: 子 曰:“臧文仲 ,其竊位者與?知柳下惠之贤,而不與立也。”
(子 曰: “Is 臧 文 仲 stealing his position? He knows that 柳 下 惠 has higher qualification [on moral] than him, while not yield his position to 柳 下 惠.”)



#14: 子 曰:“躬自厚而薄则于人,则遠怨矣。”
(子 曰: “If one disciplines himself strictly while easy on others, he will stay away from ill-will of others.”)



#15: 子 曰:“不曰如之何,如之何者;吾末如之何也已矣。”
(子 曰: “For those who does not think though issues, I do not know what to do with them.”)



#16: 子 曰:“群居终日,言不及義,好行小慧,難矣哉!”
(子 曰: “For a group people, they who indulge themselves with petty cleverness all day long without talking anything about 義 (righteous things) will have difficult time ahead.”)



#17: 子 曰:“君子義以為质,禮以行之,孫以出之,信以成之。君子哉!”
(子 曰: “君 子 has 義 as the substance, acts in accord to 禮, meets people in humble, completes all actions in honorable words. This is a 君 子 that should be.”)



#18: 子 曰:“君子病无能焉,不病人之不己知也。”
(子 曰: “君 子 should be shamed about being not useful [inability], not to worry about having no fame.”)



#19: 子 曰:“君子疾没世而名不稱焉。”
(子 曰: “君 子 worries about for not leaving some marks [contributions] for the future generations after his passing away.”)



#20: 子 曰:“君子求诸己,小人求诸人。”
(子 曰: “君 子 disciplines himself. 小 人 disciplines the others.”)



#21: 子 曰:“君子矜而不争,群而不党。”
(子 曰: “君 子 does not show off his greatness and not being contentious; he mingles with others cordially while not forming cliques.”)



#22: 子 曰:“君子不以言举人,不以人廢言。”
(子 曰: “君 子 does not judge a person with his words [but with his actions], does not dismiss sayings according to who is the speaker [his social statue].”)



#23: 子 贡 問曰:“有一言而可以终身行之者乎?”子曰:“其恕乎!己所不欲,勿施于人。”
(子 贡 asks: “Is there one word which can be the guideline for the entire lifetime?” 子 曰: “It will be the word 恕, that is, what I do not want will not be imposed on others.”)



#24: 子 曰:“吾之于人也,谁毁谁誉。如有所誉者,其有所试矣。斯民也,三代之所以直道而行也。”
(子 曰: “Whom did I ever condemn or praise? For those I praised, they were for sure passed test. The people were the test-stone for keeping the three ancient dynasties straight with the 道 [Heaven’s will].”)



#25: 子 曰:“吾猶及史之阙文也,有馬者,借人乘之,今亡矣夫!”
(子 曰: “I am old enough to know two things: 1) the history is not well-documented, 2) someone will let others to borrow his horse. Now, none of these stay.”)
Note: “The old time works with trust, today with contract” is what Confucius trying to say here.



#26: 子 曰:“巧言亂德,小不忍则亂大谋。”
(子 曰: “Cunning words can mess up 德. ‘Cannot swallow the small insult’ will mess up the big plan.”)



#27: 子 曰:“眾惡之,必察焉;眾好之,必察焉。”
(子 曰: “Everyone condemns him, you should check the fact; everyone likes him, check the fact too.”)
Note: See Chapter 13, #23


#28: 子 曰:“人能弘道,非道弘人。”
(子 曰: “Man can spread the power of 道; 道 itself will not make more people know about 道.”)



#29: 子 曰:“過而不改,是谓過矣。”
(子 曰: “Not to right the wrong, it is the true wrong.”)



#30: 子 曰:“吾嘗终日不食,终夜不寝,以思,无益,不如學也。”
(子 曰: “I tried not to eat nor to sleep in order to contemplate but did not good result. It is better to learn.”)



#31: 子 曰:“君子谋道不谋食。耕者,馁在其中矣;學也,禄在其中矣。君子憂道不憂贫。”
(子 曰: “君 子 devotes his mind on 道, not on food. Planting [as a farmer], the hungry [can still be] in it; learning, the salary is in it. 君 子 minds on 道, not on poverty.”)



#32: 子曰:“知及之,仁不能守之,雖得之,必失之。知及之,仁能守之,不莊以莅之,则民不敬。知及之,仁能守之,莊以莅之,動之不以禮, 未善也。”
(子 曰: “You are qualify to get [the politic position] but not 仁 enough to keep, then though you got it, will still lose it. You got it and 仁 enough to keep but not govern the people with dignity, people will not respect you. You got it, 仁 enough to keep and treated people with dignity but govern them not in accord to 禮, it is still not good.”)



#33: 子 曰:“君子不可小知,而可大受也。小人不可大受,而可小知也。”
(子 曰: “君 子 is not about the street smart but can be giving a great responsibility. 小 人 cannot handle any great responsibility but can give the street smart tasks.”)



#34: 子 曰:“民之于仁也,甚于水火。水火,吾见蹈而死者矣,未见蹈仁而死者也。”
(子 曰: “仁 is more vital for the people than the fire and water. Yet, I see people who die for after fire and water, but I have never seen anyone who dies while after 仁.”)



#35: 子 曰:“當仁不讓于師。”
(子 曰: “With 仁, do not submit to teacher’s authority [if he is not on the side of 仁],”)



#36: 子 曰:“君子贞而不谅。”
(子 曰: “君 子 upholds the principle but not inflexible.”)



#37: 子 曰:“事君,敬其事而后其食。”
(子 曰: “For serving the King, accomplishes the assignments before takes the salary.”)



#38: 子 曰:“道不同,不相為谋。”
(子 曰: “Not in the same boat, no need of consultation [between them].”)



#39: 子 曰:“辭,達而已矣。”
(子 曰: “Sayings, get the points across is enough.”)



#40: 師冕见,及階,子曰:“階也。”及席,子曰:“席也。”皆坐,子告之曰:“某在斯,某在斯。”師冕出,子张問曰:“與師言之,道與?”子曰:“然。固相師之道也。”
(師 冕 comes for visit. When reaches the stairs, 子 曰: “Here are stairs.” Reaches seat, 子 曰: “Here is the seat.” After all seated, Confucius tells: “He [his student] is here, and he is there.” 師 冕 left. 子 张 asks: “Is that the way of talking to a musician?” 子 曰: “Yes, it is the way of meeting a musician.”)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Wed Mar 12, 2014 11:59 am
by Tienzen
Chapter 16:《季 氏 第 十 六 》


#1: 季氏将伐颛臾,冉有季路见于孔子曰:“季氏将有事于颛臾。”孔子曰:“求,无乃尔是過與?夫颛臾,昔者先王以為东蒙主,且在邦域之中矣,是社稷之臣也,何以伐為?”冉有曰:“夫子欲之,吾二臣者,皆不欲也。”孔子曰:“求,周任有言曰:陈力就列,不能者止。危而不持,颠而不扶,则将焉用彼相矣。且尔言過矣。虎兕出于柙,龟玉毁于椟中,是谁之過與?”冉有曰:“今夫颛臾,固而近于费,今不取,后世必為子孫憂。”孔子曰:“求,君子疾夫舍曰欲之,而必為之辭。丘也,聞有国有家者,不患寡而患不均,不患贫而患不安,盖均无贫,和无寡,安无倾。夫如是,故遠人不服,则修文德以来之。既来之,则安之。今由與求也,相夫子,遠人不服而不能来也,邦分崩离析而不能守也,而谋動干戈于邦内,吾恐季孫之憂,不在颛臾,而在萧墙之内也。”
(季 氏 is about ready to announce a war against 颛 臾. 冉 有 and 季 路 (two students) go to see Confucius and say: “季 氏 is ready to attack 颛 臾”. 孔 子 曰: “冉 有, isn’t this your fault? As 颛 臾, he was appointed as the keeper of 东 蒙 (a place for sacrificial rites), and it is inside of the State. Furthermore, he is the important official in the State. What is the reason to attach him?” 冉 有 曰: “季 氏 wants to attack while both of us (the subordinates) do not want to do.” 孔 子 曰: “冉 有, 周 任 had said, ‘Able to do the job, take the position; if not, resign. Not giving a hand at danger, not catching when he is ready to fall, why is your assistance needed?’ Thus, your excuse is wrong. Whose fault is it when the tiger got out of cage and the precious jade was broken in it casket?” 冉 有 曰: “颛 臾 is now strong and near the place of 费. If not take it now, it will be trouble for the future generations [of 季 氏]. 孔 子 曰: “冉 有, 君 子 is shamed of the one who does not tell his true intention [such as you just did]. I have heard that the one leads a 国 (big State) or a 家 (small territory) should not worry about being small [in population] but about being not fair; not worry about being poor but about being instability. When fair [evenly distribution of wealth], there is no poorliness. In peace, there is no problem of being with small population. When stable, there is no turmoil. When people far away is not submissive, then improve your 文 (culture) and 德 (moral virtues) to attract them. When they come, give them security. Now, both of you assist 季 氏, and the people far away is not submissive while has turmoil internally, and plan to fight a war within the country. I think that the trouble of 季 氏 is not about 颛 臾 but is inside of his own palace.”)



#2: 孔子曰:“天下有道,则禮樂征伐自天子出;天下无道,则禮樂征伐自诸侯出。自诸侯出,盖十世希不失矣。自大夫出,五世希不失矣。陪臣執国命,三世希不失矣。天下有道,则政不在大夫。天下有道,则庶人不議。”
(孔 子 曰: “When the Empire is governed according to 道 (Heavenly laws), the 禮 樂 and 征 伐 [the right of announcing the war] belongs to the Emperor. When the Empire is not governed according to 道, the 禮 樂 and 征 伐 are in the hands of 诸 侯 (the Dukes). In 诸 侯’s hands, it won’t last for 10 generations [世 is 30 years]. In 大 夫 [the prime minister of 诸 侯] hand, it won’t last 5 generations. In 陪 臣 [lower official then 大 夫] hand, it won’t last 3 generations. When the Empire is in accordance to 道, its political power will not go to 大 夫 and the subjects will not critical about the policy.”)



#3: 孔 子 曰:“禄之去公室,五世矣。政逮于大夫,四世矣。故夫三桓之子孫,微矣。”
(孔 子 曰: “That the power was stripped from the 公 [Duke} had been 5 generations. That the power went done to 大 夫 had been 4 generations. Thus, the descendants of 三 桓 [three clans] are on the decline.”)



#4: 孔 子 曰:“益者三友,损者三友。友直,友谅,友多聞,益矣。友便辟,友善柔,友便佞,损矣。”
(孔 子 曰: “There are three kinds of ‘good’ friend, and three bad kinds. The one who is upright, considerate and knowledge is a good friend. The one who is not straight, pleasant in dealing and flattering is bad friend.”)



#5: 孔 子 曰:“益者三樂,损者三樂。樂節禮樂,樂道人之善,樂多贤友,益矣。樂驕樂,樂佚游,樂宴樂,损矣。”
(孔 子 曰: “It will be good [beneficial] if one 樂 [be fond of] three things be bad if is fond of three other things. 樂 [fond of] 禮 樂 [proper conducts and music]; 樂 to praise the other persons, and 樂 to have more good friends. These three 樂 will help you. On the other hand, 樂 to show off; 樂 to be lazy and playful, and 樂 to party; these three will do you no good.”)



#6: 孔 子 曰:“伺于君子有三愆:言未及之而言谓之躁,言及之而不言谓之隐,未见颜色而言谓之瞽。”
(孔 子 曰: “When with 君 子, there are bad actions. Speaking while it is not the right time, it is called ‘rash’. Not speaking when it is the time to do it, it is called ‘hiding’. Speaking without considering the listener’s emotion is called ‘blind’.”)



#7: 孔 子 曰:“君子有三戒:少之时,血氣未定,戒之在色;及其壮也,血氣方剛,戒之在鬥;及其老也,血氣既衰,戒之在得。”
(孔 子 曰: “There are three things that 君 子 should avoid. When young, the body [血 (blood) and 氣 (chi, energy) is not mature, he should avoid sex. When grown up [in the prime], the body is strong, he should avoid fighting. When gets old, his body has declined, he should avoid being greedy.”)



#8: 孔 子 曰:“君子有三畏:畏天命,畏大人,畏聖人之言。小人不知天命而不畏也,狎大人,侮聖人之言。”
(孔 子 曰: “君 子 is afraid of three things: afraid of 天 命 [Heaven’s will], of 大 人 [his boss, such as the King] and of the sayings of 聖 人 [holy sage]. 小 人 not afraid of 天 命 as he has now capacity of know it. Then, he kisses 大 人’s behind and insults the saying of holy sage.”)



#9: 孔 子 曰:“生而知之者上也,學而知之者次也,困而學之,又其次也。困而不學,民斯為下矣。”
(孔 子 曰: “The one who is born with knowledge it on the top. The one who gain the knowledge by learning is in the lower tier. The one with low IQ while studying very hard is a step lower yet. The one with low IQ while not trying to learn is the lowest.”)



#10: 孔 子 曰:“君子有九思:视思明,聽思聪,色思温,貌思恭,言思忠,事思敬,疑思問,忿思難,见得思義。”
(孔 子 曰: “君 子 must excel in 9 tasks: seeing, no fuzziness; listening, no missed words or meanings; expression, being cordial; posture, having discipline; speaking, being trustworthy; doing works, being sincere, doubting, asking; upsetting, thinking the consequence [if taking a violent action]; seeing gain or profit, thinking the 義 [the righteousness].”)



#11: 孔子曰:“见善如不及,见不善如探汤。吾见其人矣,吾聞其语矣。隐居以求其志,行義以達其道,吾聞其语矣,吾未见其人也。齊景公有馬千驷,死之日,民无得而稱焉。伯夷叔齊,饿于首陽之下,民到于今稱之,其斯之谓與?”
(孔 子 曰: “Seeing goodness [from other], as my role model. Seeing bad, stay away as putting the hands in the boiling water. I did see persons who achieved these.
For one who goes as a hermit in order to preserve his dignity and acts with 義 to reach the 道 [Heavenly virtues], I have heard about him but have never met one. 齊 景 公 (a Duke) has one thousand terms of horse [4 per term]. No one says good thing about him when he died. 伯 夷 and 叔 齊 (two hermits) starved at the foot of mount of 首 陽, and the people is still praising them even today. This is what I am talking about.”)



#12: 陈亢問于伯鱼曰:“子亦有異聞乎?”對曰:“未也。嘗獨立,鲤趨而過庭,曰:’學诗乎?’對曰:’未也。’’不學诗,无以言。’鲤退而學诗。他日又獨立,鲤趨而過庭,曰:’學禮乎?’對曰:’未也。’’不學禮,无以立。’鲤退而學禮。聞斯二者。”陈亢退而喜曰:“問一得三:聞诗,聞禮,又聞君子之遠其子也。”
(陈 亢 asks 伯 鱼 (son of Confucius), says: “Did you get any private lesson?” Answers: No. Once, Confucius stood there alone and I went by. He asked, “Did you study the Book of Poem?” I said, no. He said, “Not knowing Poem, you will not speak with culture.” So, I went to study the Book of Poem. At another private situation [no one around], he asked, “Did you study the 禮?” I said, no. He said, “Not knowing 禮, you will not know how to behave.” So, I went to study the 禮. After heard about these ‘two’, 陈 亢 was happy and said, “asking one [question] and got three answers: about 诗 [Book of Poem], about 禮, and about that 君 子 will not give favors to his son.”)



#13: 邦君之妻,君稱之曰 “夫人”,夫人自稱曰 “小童”,邦人稱之曰 “君夫人”,稱诸異邦曰 “寡小君”,異邦人稱之亦曰“君夫人”。
(The wife of King, King call her 夫 人 [Lady], she calls herself 小 童 [little kid]. The people in the country calls her 君 夫 人 [King’s Lady]. In the foreign country, she is called 寡 小 君 [little highness] or King’s Lady.”)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Wed Mar 12, 2014 12:00 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 17:《陽 货 第 十 七》



#1: 陽货欲见孔子,孔子不见,歸孔子豚,孔子时其亡也而往拜之,遇诸途,谓孔子曰:“来,予與尔言。曰:懷其宝,而迷其邦。可谓仁乎?”曰:“不可。”“好從事而亟失时,可谓知乎?”曰:“不可。”“日月逝矣,歲不我與。”孔子曰:“诺。吾将仕矣。”
(陽 货 (a high official) wanted to visit Confucius. Confucius refused to meet him. He went back and sent a piglet to Confucius. Confucius went to 陽 货’s house returning the courtesy after knowing he was not a home. Yet, they met on the way. 陽 said to Confucius, “come, I talk with you.” Saying, “Is such a person 仁, who he let the country goes astray while hoarding the 宝 [treasure, but means the ability to govern a State, here]?” Confucius answered, “No, not 仁.” Asked, “Is such a person wise, who he wanted to do good for the country while refusing the opportunity?” Answered, “No, not wise.” 陽 said, “Time goes by and age does not stay young with me.” Confucius answered, “Yes, I will come out to serve the country.”)



#2: 子 曰:“性相近也,習相遠也。”
(子 曰: “The human nature is similar, but the learning makes men different.”)


#3: 子 曰:“唯上智與下愚不移。”
(子 曰: “Only the top intelligent people and the bottom ignorant ones cannot be changed [by learning or education].”)



#4: 子之武城,聞弦歌之聲,夫子莞尔而笑曰:“割雞焉用宰牛刀。”子游對曰:“昔者偃也聞诸夫子曰:’君子學道则愛人,小人學道则易使也。’”子曰:“二三子,偃之言是也。前言戏之耳。”
(Confucius went to 武 城 and heard the playing of music from a [kid] learning school. Confucius smiled and said, “Why should the ox-axe be used to kill a chicken?” 子 游 replied: “I heard that it is the way should be [teaching music in school].” Confucius said, “君 子 teaching 道 because of loving the students. 小 人 teaching 道 for training a group of submissive people.” 子 曰: “You boys [students], 子 游’s saying is correct. My previous comment was just a joke.”)
Note: There is another way to translate ‘君子學道则愛人,小人學道则易使也。’ 君 子 learns 道 becoming a loving person. 小 人 learns 道 becoming a manipulating person.



#5: 公山弗扰以费畔,召,子欲往,子路不说,曰:“末之也已,何必公山氏之之也!”子曰:“夫召我者豈徒哉!如有用我者,吾其為东周乎!”
(公 山 弗 uses the place of 费 as a base for rebelling. He invites Confucius [to help him]. Confucius wanted to go. 子 路 was not happy and said, “We may have no place to go, but why go to 公 山?” 子 曰: “He did not invite me for no reason. If wants to employ me [my great ability], I can help him to start a new 东 周 [reviving a dying Empire].”)



#6: 子张問仁于孔子,孔子曰:“能行五者于天下,為仁矣。”请問之。曰:“恭宽信敏惠。恭则不侮,宽则得眾,信则人任焉,敏则有功,惠则足以使人。”
(子 张 asks about 仁. 孔 子 曰: “He who can implement 5 things is 仁; 恭 (sincere), 宽 (tolerance), 信 (trustworthy), 敏 (diligent), 惠 (generous). 恭, then no regret; 宽, then win the trust of people; 信, then will be trusted by others; 敏, then have accomplishments; 惠, then be able to command others.”)



#7: 佛刖召,子欲往。子路曰:“昔者由也聞诸夫子曰:親于其身為不善者,君子不入也。佛刖以中牟畔,子之往也如之何?”子曰:“然。有是言也:不曰坚乎,磨而不磷;不曰白乎,涅而不缁。吾其孢瓜也哉?焉能系而不食。”
(佛 刖 invites [Confucius]. He wanted to go. 子 路 曰: “I have heard your saying before, ‘君 子 will not go with someone who does bad thing to his own people. Now, 佛 刖 is using the place of 中 牟 as a base for revolt, why should you go there?” 子 曰: “Yes [I said that]. Yet, there are other sayings: “Hard indeed, yet can it stand the grinding? white indeed, yet can it stand the black dye? As a gourd, why should it just be hung, not for food? I am just a gourd [make for food, be useful].”)



#8: 子曰:“由也,汝聞六言六蔽矣乎?”對曰:“未也。”“居,吾语汝。好仁不好學,其蔽也愚;好知不好學,其蔽也荡;好信不好學,其蔽也贼;好直不好學,其蔽也绞;好勇不好學,其蔽也亂;好剛不好學,其蔽也狂。”
(子 曰: “由, have you heard about six sayings on six ‘faults [bad]’?” Answers: No. Confucius says: “Sit, and I will tell you. 好 (be fond of) 仁 but not fond of learning, the bad is about being foolish; 好 知 (smart) but not learning, the bad is about not solid knowledge [being far out]; fond of 信 (the trustworthiness) but not learning, the bad is about becoming a liar; fond of 直 (uprightness) but not learning, the bad is about being intolerance; fond of 勇 (bravery) but not learning, the bad is about being violent; fond of 剛 (unbending) but not learning, the bad is about no discipline.”)



#9: 子 曰:“小子,何莫學夫诗?诗可以興,可以觀,可以群,可以怨。迩之事父,遠之事君。多識于鸟獸草木之名。”
(子 曰: “Kids, Why are you all not studying 诗 (Book of Poem)? It can give you 興 (the rise of emotion or spiritual feelings), 觀 (showing you literary level), 群 (helping you to get along with people), 怨 (relieving the internal bad feelings). Near-by, it helps you to serve your father. For farther case, it helps you to serve the King. And, it allows you to gain more knowledge on the names of birds, animals, weeds, and trees.”)



#10: 子谓 伯 鱼 曰:“汝為周南召南矣乎?人而不為周南召南,其猶正墙面而立也與?”
(Confucius talks to 伯 鱼 (his son), says: “Have you studied 周 南 and 召 南 (two poems)? As a man while not study them, he is the same as standing while facing the wall [see nothing, do nothing].”)



#11: 子 曰:“禮云禮云,玉帛云乎哉?樂云樂云,钟鼓云乎哉?”
(子 曰: “禮 and 禮, is it just about offering the jade and silk? 樂 and 樂, is it just about the bells and drums?”)



#12: 子 曰:“色厲而内荏,譬诸小人,其猶穿窬之盗也與?”
(子 曰: “Showing a brave face while timid in the heart, it is the way of 小 人, the same as a burglar when he breaks in and climbs over the wall [showing strength while scared].”)



#13: 子 曰:“鄉愿,德之贼也。”
(子 曰: “鄉 愿 (who pretends to be a nice guy) is the thief of 德 (great virtues).”)



#14: 子 曰:“道聽而途说,德之棄也。”
(子 曰: “Spreading the rumors is abandoning 德.”)



#15: 子 曰:“鄙夫,可與事君也與哉?其未得之也,患得之;既得之,患失之。苟患失之,无所不至矣。”
(子 曰: “Rascal, can he serve the King? Before he gets the job, he worries of not getting. After he got the job, he worries of losing it. Being worrying of losing it, he behaves without any restrains.”)



#16: 子 曰:“古者民有三疾,今也或是之亡也。古之狂也肆,今之狂也荡;古之矜也廉,今之矜也忿戾;古之愚也直,今之愚也诈而已矣。”
(子 曰: “In the ancient time, people has three ill-behaviors, but today they got worse. In the ancient, the 狂 (big head) without discipline, today is wild; the ancient 矜 (self-proud) but thrifty, today is ill-tempered; the ancient 愚 (not smart) is honest, today is deceitful.”)



#17: 子 曰:“巧言令色,鲜矣仁。”
(子 曰: “with cunning words and flattering expressions, one can seldom be 仁.”)



#18: 子 曰:“惡紫之奪朱也,惡鄭聲之亂雅樂也,惡利口之覆家邦者。”
(子 曰: “Detesting the purple over shadow the red, detesting the 鄭-music over take the 雅-music, detesting the clever talkers who ruin the countries.”)



#19: 子 曰:“予欲无言。”子贡曰:“子如不言,则小子何述焉?”子曰:“天何言哉。四时行焉,百物生焉。天何言哉!”
(子 曰: “I have nothing more to say.” 子 贡 曰: “How can we write anything down if you say nothing?” 子 曰: “What has Heaven said? The four seasons move, all creatures come with birth. What has Heaven said?”)



#20: 孺 悲 欲见孔子,孔子辭以疾,将命者出户,取瑟而歌,使之聞之。
(孺 悲 wants to see Confucius. Confucius declined by claiming being ill. When 孺 悲 just went out the door, Confucius got his lute and sang, for letting 孺 悲 to hear [he is not ill but dislike the man].”)



#21: 宰我問:“三年之丧,期已久矣。君子三年不為禮,禮必坏;三年不為樂,樂必崩。舊穀既没,新穀既升,钻燧改火,期可已矣。”子曰:“食夫稻,衣夫锦,于汝安乎?”曰:“安。”“汝安则為之。夫君子之居丧,食旨不甘,聞樂不樂,居處不安,故不為也。今汝安,则為之。”宰我出,子曰:“予之不仁也。子生三年,然后免于父母之懷。夫三年之丧,天下之通丧也。予也有三年之愛于其父母乎?”
(宰 我 asks: “Is the three year mourning period too long? 君 子 not practicing 禮 [the social rules are waived during the mourning period] for three years, the 禮 will be eroded. Three years not practicing 樂 [the music and dancing for the 禮 ceremony], the 樂 will fall apart. When the old grain is used up, the new grain is harvested and with new fire-seed, it should be enough [that is, one year].” 子 曰: “Are you comfortable to eat rice and to wear silk [during this mourning period]?” Answers: Comfortable. Confucius says: “You comfortable, then do it. During the mourning period, 君 子 eats while cannot enjoy, hears music while cannot be happy, stays at home without being comfortable. So he won’t do it [with only one year of mourning]. You feel comfortable, then do it.” After 宰 我 went out, Confucius says: “How not 仁 that 宰 我 is! After the birth, a child is off the bosom of parents after three years. The three years mourning is the rule throughout the Empire. Is 宰 我 having three years of loving his parents?”)



#22: 子 曰:“饱食终日,无所用心,焉矣哉!不有博弈者乎,為之猶贤乎已。”
(子 曰: “Eating full while not doing anything [idle] whole day, what a pity? Isn’t there someone who 博 (gamble) and 弈 (play chess) only? They are still better [than idle].”)



#23: 子 路 曰:“君子尚勇乎?”子曰:“君子義以為上,君子有勇而无義為亂,小人有勇而无義為盗。”
(子 路 曰: “Is 君 子 praising 勇 (braveness)?” 子 曰: “君 子 places 義 (righteousness) as top priority. 君 子 who is brave without 義 will make chaos. 小 人 with braveness without 義 will become a brigand.”)



#24: 子贡曰:“君子亦有惡乎?”子曰:“有惡。惡稱人之惡者,惡居下流而讪上者,惡勇而无禮者,惡果敢而窒者。”曰:“赐也亦有惡乎。惡敫以為知者,惡不孫以為勇者,惡讦以為直者。”
(子 贡 曰: “Is there something 君 子 despising?” 子 曰: “Yes. Despising those who call others as bad, despising those who sit at low position while slander the superiors, despising those who are brave but without 禮, despising those who are decisive but without any compromise.” Confucius added, “Is anything that you despise? I despise those who pretend to be wise while ignorant, who pretend to be brave with not yielding, and who pretend to be upright with cunningness.”)



#25: 子 曰:“唯女子與小人為難養也。近之则不孫,遠之则怨。”
(子 曰: “Only women and children are difficult to live with. Be close to them, they become not respectful. Keep them at a distance, they fuss.”)



#26: 子 曰:“年四十而见惡焉,其终也已。”
(子 曰: “If a man is still disliked [by all] at age 40, he is done for.”)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Wed Mar 12, 2014 12:01 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 18:《微 子 第 十 八》


#1: 微 子 去之, 箕 子 為之奴,比干谏而死。孔子曰:“殷有三仁焉。”
(微 子 went away, 箕 子 becomes a slave, 比 干 died for trying to right the wrong on Emperor. 孔 子 曰: “The 殷-dynasty had thee 仁-men.”)



#2: 柳 下 惠 為士師,三黜,人曰:“子未可以去乎?”曰:“直道而事人,焉往而不三黜;枉道而事人,何必去父母之邦。”
(柳 下 惠 was dismissed three time from the job of a judge. Someone said, “It is the time for him to leave, isn’t it?” Confucius says: “Being an impartial judge, he could be dismissed three times anywhere; being a biased judge, why should he go away from his home country [as he would not be dismissed]?”)



#3: 齊 景 公 待孔子,曰:“若季氏则吾不能,以季孟之间待之。”曰:“吾老矣,不能用也。”孔子行。
(齊 景 公 (a Duke) talks to Confucius, says: “I cannot offer you a position as the 季氏 did but will be in between the 季 and 孟 [not very good offer].” Confucius says: “I am old and unable to serve you.” Confucius left.



#4: 齊 人 歸女樂,季桓子受之,三日不朝,孔子行。
(齊-State sent a few singing and dancing girls to 季 桓 子. He accepted them and stayed away from the court [business] for three days. Confucius left [quitted his job].)



#5: 楚狂接舆歌而過孔子曰:“鳳兮鳳兮,何德之衰。往者不可谏,来者猶可追。已而已而,今之從政者殆而。”孔子下,欲與之言,趨而避之,不得與之言。
(接 舆, a self-proud man of 楚-State, passed by Confucius, singing: “Phoenix, phoenix; how much the 德 has declined? The bygone is the bygone. Yet, go catch what yet to come. Over and all over. Those in office today are all zombies.” Confucius got down [from his carriage] and wanted to talk to him. He hurried off. Confucius was unable to speak to him.)



#6: 长沮桀溺耦而耕,孔子過之,使子路問津焉。长沮曰:“夫執舆者為谁?”子路曰:“為孔丘。”曰:“是鲁孔丘與?”曰:“是也。”曰:“是知津矣。”問于桀溺,桀溺曰:“子為谁?”曰:“為仲由。”曰:“是鲁孔丘之徒與?”對曰:“然。”曰:“滔滔者天下皆是也,而谁以易之。且而與其從避人之士也,豈若從避世之士哉?”猶而不辍。子路行以告,夫子怃然曰:“鸟獸不可與同群,吾非斯人之徒與而谁與?天下有道,丘不與易也。”
(长 沮 and 桀 溺 were ploughing together. Confucius went by and sent 子 路 to ask the direction. 长 沮 曰: “Who is the one at the carriage?” 子 路 曰: “is 孔 丘 (Confucius)”. Asks: “The 孔 丘 of 鲁-State?” Answers: Yes. 长 沮 says: “Then, he knows about the direction.” Asks 桀 溺. 桀 溺 曰: “Who are you?” Answers: “I am 仲 由 [子 路].” 桀 溺 曰: “Is the student of 鲁 孔 丘?” Answers: Yes. 桀 溺 曰: “Men are all the same in this Empire. Why should anyone be different? Why follow a person who only stay away from bad persons? It is much better to follow a hermit.” Then, he went back for his ploughing. 子 路 went and told this to Confucius. Confucius said with a sigh: “Birds and animals cannot live together. What kind of person I am if I am not his kind? If the Empire is in order [in accordance to 道], I will be no different from him.”)



#7: 子路從而后,遇丈人,以杖和苕,子路問曰:“子见夫子乎?”丈人曰:“四体不勤,五穀不分,孰為夫子?”植其杖而耘。子路拱而立,止子路宿,殺雞為黍而食之,见其二子焉。明日,子路行以告,子曰:“隐者也。”使子路反见之,至则行矣。子路曰:“不仕无義。长幼之節,不可廢也。君臣之義,如之何其廢之。欲潔其身,而亂大倫。君子之仕也,行其義也,道之不行,已知之矣。”
(子 路 falls behind the Confucius’ caravan. He meets an old man who carries a basket on a staff. He asks: “Did you see my Master?” The old man says: “[You seem] not toiled your limbs, not know about the different grains, what kind of Master are you following?” He then sets the staff aside and starts weeding. 子 路 stands and 拱 (showing respect by holding two hands together). Then, the old man invites 子 路 to stay overnight and kills chicken and cooks some food to feed him, also introduces two sons to him. The next day, 子 路 tells Confucius about this story. 子 曰: “A hermit,” and sends 子 路 back to find him but the old man has gone. 子 路 曰: “Not to serve the public is not 義 (righteous). Taking care for the old and young cannot be neglected. How can the King/official relationship be abolished? [That is,] keeping clean on one’s own character while disregard the big responsibility. 君 子 serves the public [taking office] for fulfilling the 義. [The country] is not governed according to 道 [not a reason to be a hermit], he knows about it long ago.”



#8: 逸民,伯夷、叔齊、虞仲、夷逸、朱张、柳下惠、少连。子曰:“不降其志,不辱其身,伯夷、叔齊與?”谓柳下惠、少连:“降志辱身矣。言中倫,行中虑,其斯而已矣。”谓虞仲、夷逸:“隐居放言,身中清,廢中权。” “我则異于是,无可无不可。”
(逸 民 (hermits), 伯夷、 叔齊、 虞仲、 夷逸、 朱张、 柳下惠、 and 少连. 子 曰: “Not to give up their will, not to be humiliated, weren’t these 伯夷 and 叔齊? For 柳下惠 and 少连, they gave up their will and were humiliated. But, their words were consistent and deeds with circumspection. That is about them. For 虞 仲 and 夷 逸, they say weird things to be hermits [so not King will draft or summon them], that is, crippling their ability in order to preserve their characters.” I (Confucius) will be different; I am indifference about being a hermit or a public official.)



#9: 太師挚適齊,亚饭干適楚,三饭缭適蔡,四饭缺適秦,鼓方叔入于河,播鼓武入于漢,少師陽、擊磬襄入于海。
(挚 (太師, a grand musician) went to 齊-State, 干 (亚 饭, a musician one level below the grand musician) went to 楚-State, 缭 (三 饭, level three musician) went to 蔡-State, 缺 (四 饭, level four musician) went to 秦-State, 方 叔 (who can only play 鼓 方, a low level drum) went to 河 (a territory around the Yellow river), 武 (who plays 播 鼓, a lower drum) went to 漢-territory, 陽 and 襄(少 師, the junior musician) who plays 磬 (a stone made instrument) went to island. )



#10: 周 公 谓 鲁 公 曰:“君子不施其親,不使大臣怨乎不以。故舊无大故,则不棄也。无求備于一人。”
(周 公 (Duke) told 鲁 公 (a Duke), said: “君 子 will not distance from his relatives, will not cause any complaints from his officials by not heeding their advices, and will not dismiss a long time official if without a major mishaps. Do not demand the perfection from one person.)


#11: 周有八士:伯達、伯適、仲突、仲忽、叔夜、叔夏、季随、季娲。
(周-dynasty has eight 士 (君 子): 伯達、 伯適、 仲突、 仲忽、 叔夜、 叔夏、 季随 and 季娲.)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Wed Mar 12, 2014 12:02 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 19:《子 张 第 十 九》


#1: 子 张 曰:“士见危致命,见得思義,祭思敬,丧思哀,其可已矣。”
(子 张 曰: “If one gives his life when facing the danger, putting 義 at the first priority when facing any profit, being sincere and respectful during any ceremony, expressing sorrow at any funeral, he will be a 士 (a synonym of 君 子.”)



#2: 子 张 曰:“執德不弘,信道不笃,焉能為有,焉能為亡?”
(子 张 曰: “Holding 德 without the whole effort, trusting 道 without solid action, how can one behold anything or lose anything [he has nothing to hold or to lose].”)



#3: 子夏之門人,問交于子张。子张曰:“子夏云何?”對曰:“子夏曰:可者與之,其不可者拒之。”子张曰:“異乎吾所聞。君子尊贤而容眾,嘉善而矜不能。我之大贤與,于人何所不容;我之不贤與,人将拒我,如之何其拒人也?”
(子 夏’s student asks about the rules of making friend from 子 张. 子 张 曰: “What did 子 夏 have to say?” Answers: “子 夏 曰: go with those who can go with, spurn those who cannot go with.” 子 张 曰: “It is different from what I have heard. 君 子 honors those who is better than him while encompasses the mass (who is not better than him); praises those who is great while helps the weak. If I were the greatest, who cannot be encompassed by me? If I were the worst, others will stay away from me. How do I have the chance to refuse others?”)



#4: 子 夏 曰:“雖小道,必有可觀者焉。致遠恐泥,是以君子不為也。”
(子 夏 曰: “Even the small skill, it will still have some excellent points. Yet, it has only small scope and won’t have big scope influence. Thus, 君 子 will not do it.”)



#5: 子 夏 曰:“日知其所亡,月无忘其所能,可谓好學也已矣。”
(子 夏 曰: “Knowing something new [not known before] every day, not forgetting what you have learned after a month. This is about the good learning.)



#6: 子 夏 曰:“博學而笃志,切問而近思,仁在其中矣。”
(子 夏 曰: “Learning widely and stead-fasting on your direction; asking questions [not to pretend to know it all] and introspect around yourself; 仁 is in this process already.”)



#7: 子 夏 曰:“百工居肆以成其事,君子學以致其道。”
(子 夏 曰:”All artisans produce their products in the market place. 君 子 studies for the purpose of implement the 道 [that is, a better governed society].”)



#8: 子 夏 曰:“小人之過也必文。”
(子 夏 曰: “小 人 will always cover up his mistakes.”)



#9: 子 夏 曰:“君子有三變:望之儼然,即之也温,聽其言也厲。”
(子 夏 曰: “君 子 has three different expressions: appearing formal in a distance, appearing cordial in contact, appearing stern in his speech.”)



#10: 子 夏 曰:“君子信而后勞其民,未信则以為厲己也。信而后谏,未信则以為谤己也。”
(子 夏 曰: “君 子 employs the labors of people only after gaining their trust. Without trust, they will think about be miss-treated. With trust, then gives advices. Without trust, advices will be viewed as slander.”)



#11: 子 夏 曰:“大德不逾閑,小德出入,可也。”
(子 夏 曰: “Without stepping over the major 德 issues, the stepping out any small issue on 德 is Okay.”)


#12: 子游曰:“子夏之門人小子,當洒扫应對進退,则可矣。抑末也,本之则无,如之何?”子夏聞之曰:“噫,言游過矣!君子之道,孰先传焉,孰后倦焉。譬诸草木,区以别矣。君子之道,焉可诬也。有始有卒者,其惟聖人乎?”
(子 游 曰: “The students of 子 夏 have learned how to do the daily chores (such as sweeping) and the basic manners. Yet, these are nitty-gritty. They have not learned any essential. What to do about them?” 子 夏 heard this and says: “Wow, how wrong 子 游 is! For the 道 (essence of being a 君 子) of 君 子, which should be taught first, which last? [The first must be different from the last] just like distinguishing tree from grass; the 道 of 君 子 must not misunderstood this. Perhaps, only 聖 人 (holy sage) can go from the beginning to reach the end [of course, I 子 夏 cannot].”)
Note: This is a bickering between 子 游 and 子 夏.



#13: 子 夏 曰:“仕而優则學,學而優则仕。”
(子 夏 曰: “仕 (taking up an office) and handle it with ease, then study and learn. 學 (study and learn) is complete, then 仕.”)



#14: 子 游 曰:“丧致乎哀而止。”
(子 游 曰: “At funeral, expressing the sincere morrow is enough [no additional show is needed].”)



#15: 子 游 曰:“吾友张也,為難能也,然而未仁。”
(子 游 曰: “My friend 张 has reached very high attainment, yet not reaching 仁.”)



#16: 曾 子 曰:“堂堂乎张也,難與并為仁矣。”
(曾 子 曰: “Great and great about 张, it is hard to compete with him on attaining 仁.”)



#17: 曾 子 曰:“吾聞诸夫子:人未有自致者也,必也親丧乎?”
(曾 子 曰: “I have heard that Confucius said: without the death of one’s own parents, he won’t reach [the sorrow state by acting, not from the heart].”)



#18: 曾 子 曰:“吾聞诸夫子:孟莊子之孝也,其他可能也,其不改父之臣,與父之政,是難能也。”
(曾 子 曰: “I have heard from Confucius, said: the 孝 (filial piety) of 孟 莊 子 can be matched by others. Yet, he did not dismiss the officials of his father, change the policy of his father. It is hard for others to do [follow].”)



#19: 孟 氏 使陽肤為士師,問與曾子,曾子曰:“上失其道,民散久矣。如得其情,则哀矜而勿喜。”
(孟 氏 appointed 陽 肤 as the judge and asked 曾 子 [about this appointment]. 曾 子 曰: “As the leader was not in accordance to 道, the subjects have been moral less for a long while. If they regain their morality, do not overly joy but keep your great feeling to yourself.”)



#20: 子 贡 曰:“纣之不善,不如是之甚也。是以君子惡居下流,天下之惡皆歸焉。”
(子 贡 曰: “The bad (evil) of 纣 (an Emperor) is not as bad as described. Thus, 君 子 is afraid of sitting at the downstream [of morality] as all bad (name) of the Empire will flow to it.”)



#21: 子 贡 曰:“君子之過也,如日月之食焉。過也,人皆见之;更也,人皆仰之。”
(子 贡 曰: “That the mistakes made by 君 子 are like the eclipse of sun and moon. Mistakes, everyone sees it. Right his mistakes, everyone looks up to.”)



#22: 衛公孫朝問于子贡曰:“仲尼焉學?”子贡曰:“文武之道,未堕于地,在人。贤者識其大者,不贤者識其小者,莫不有文武之道焉,夫子焉不學,而亦何常師之有!”
(公 孫 朝 of 衛-State asks 子 贡, says: “From whom did Confucius learn?” 子 贡 曰: “The 道 (knowledge) of 文-Emperor and 武-Emperor has not vanished but known by [many] men. The top one knows the big points. The junior one knows the little points. All those know some, and from whom does Confucius not learn? How can he find a definite teacher?”)



#23: 叔孫武叔语大夫于朝曰:“子贡贤于仲尼。”子服景伯以告子贡,子贡曰:“譬之宫墙。赐之墙也及肩,窥见室家之好。夫子之墙数仞,不得其門而入,不见宗廟之美,百官之富。得其門者或寡矣。夫子之云,不亦宜乎?”
(叔 孫 武 叔 said to his officials at his court: “子 贡 is superior to Confucius.” 子 服 景 伯 told 子 贡 about this. 子 贡 曰: “Using the palace wall as a metaphor, my wall is shoulder height, and the beauty of the house can be seen from without. The wall of Confucius is 30 feet tall. Without entering through the gate, one cannot see the beauty of internal [buildings]. There are very few who are able to enter into his gate. Thus, that comment [from 叔 孫 武 叔] is quite reasonable.”)



#24: 叔孫武叔毁仲尼,子贡曰:“无以為也。仲尼,不可毁也。他人之贤者,丘陵也,猶可逾也。仲尼,日月也,无得而逾焉。人雖欲自绝,其何傷于日月乎?多见其不知量也。”
(叔 孫 武 叔 slanders on Confucius. 子 贡 曰: “No use. Confucius cannot be smeared. The greatness of others is as a small hill that one can go over it. For Confucius, he is as the sun and moon, no one can reach it. If someone who wants to hurt himself, how can it hurt the sun and moon? But shows how he is not knowing what he himself is!”)



#25: 陈子禽谓子贡曰:“子為恭也,仲尼豈贤與子乎?”子贡曰:“君子一言以為知,一言以為不知,言不可不慎也。夫子之不可及也,猶天之不可階而升也。夫子之得邦家者,所谓立之斯立,道之斯行,绥之斯来,勤之斯和。其生也荣,其死也哀。如之何其可及也?”
(陈 子 禽 talked to 子 贡, says: “You just being polite. Surely Confucius is not better than you!” 子 贡 曰: “By a single sentence uttered by 君 子, he can be judged as wise or fool. One must be very careful about one’s saying. That the depth of Confucius cannot be measured is the same that the Heaven cannot be reached with ladder. If Confucius were the hand of a country, the 道 will move in its natural way, those must be implemented will be implemented. People will converge and work hard, living with honor and die with condolence. How is his (Confucius’) greatness can be reached?”)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Wed Mar 12, 2014 12:02 pm
by Tienzen
Chapter 20:《堯 曰 第 二 十》


#1: 堯曰:“咨,尔舜,天之历数在尔躬,允執其中。四海困窮,天禄永终。”舜亦以命禹,曰:“予小子履,敢用玄牡,敢昭告于皇皇后帝,有罪不敢赦,帝臣不蔽,简在帝心。朕躬有罪,无以萬方,萬方有罪,罪在朕躬。周有大赉,善人是富。雖有周親,不如仁人。百姓有過,在予一人。谨权量,审法度,修廢官,四方之政行焉。興灭国,继绝世,举逸民,天下之民歸心焉。所重民,食丧祭。宽则得眾,信则民任焉,敏则有功,公则说。”
(堯 (an Emperor) said: “Telling you, 舜 (an Emperor); the Heaven’s will is now upon you. Govern in the middle pathway. If the country became poor and in dire straits, the honor bestowed on you will be taken away forever.” 舜 said to 禹 [a succession Emperor of 舜] with the same saying. Confucius commented: “履 (a later Emperor) said: I, the little one who is dare to use the sacred rite to pray to the Heaven is because that the current Emperor has sinned and his officials who has read ‘Your Will’ will not protect him. If I have sinned, I will not be able to lead the Empire. If the Empire has sinned, it is my sin.” Confucius commented again: “周-dynasty was blessed greatly and had many great persons. Although the Emperor had many relatives, it was not better than having many 仁-men. When people (subjects) sinned (transgressed), it is all my fault. It is my responsibility to provide measuring standards, to issue laws, to maintain public buildings, to ensure the operations of all public offices, to restore the vanished (annexed) States, to revive the generations about extinct, to settle the refuges; then all people in the Empire will be submissive. The key concerns of people are ‘food’, ‘death (of family)’ and ‘the ceremony on the ancestors’. Encompassing will gain the trust of people. Being trustworthy, will be appointed by people. Working diligently, will have achievement; being fair, all be happy.”)



#2: 子张問于孔子曰:“何如,斯可以從政矣?”子曰:“尊五美,屏四惡,斯可以從政矣。”子张曰:“何谓五美?”曰:“君子惠而不费,勞而不怨,欲而不贪,泰而不驕,威而不猛。”子张曰:“何谓惠而不费?”子曰:“因民之所利而利之,斯不亦惠而不费乎?择可勞而勞之,又谁怨?欲仁得仁,又焉贪?君子无眾寡、无小大、无敢慢,斯不亦泰而不驕乎?君子正其衣冠,尊其瞻视,儼然人望而畏之,斯不亦威而不猛乎?”子张曰:“何谓四惡?”子曰:“不教而殺谓之虐,不戒视成谓之暴,慢令致期谓之贼,猶之與人也,出纳之吝,谓之有司。”
(子 张 asks 孔 子, says: “What is the criterion for taking up a public office?” 子 曰: “Exalt five good, and eschew four bad, then, one can take up a public office.” 子 张 曰: “What are the five good?” Confucius says: “君 子 helps other without costing himself; employing others without being complained; with desires without being greedy; relaxed without looking arrogant; appearing respectful without being fierce.” 子 张 曰: “What is helping with costing?” 子 曰: “Allowing people to after what is helping them themselves, isn’t it helping them without any cost? Employing those who are willing to be employed, who will then complain? Desiring 仁 and get it, is that greedy? 君 子 treats all people [many or few; big or small; young or old] in the same manner, isn’t it relaxing while not arrogant? 君 子 dresses properly; dignifies his gaze; he will be respected by anyone facing him. Isn’t it respectful while not fierce? 子 张 曰: “What are the four bad?” 子 曰: “Giving death sentence before teaching them the laws is cruelty. Expecting result without giving detailed instructions first is tyrannical. Demanding completion with a short notice is cheating, that is ‘giving out less than it should be.’ And, this is what the government does today.)



#3: 子 曰:“不知命,无以為君子;不知禮,无以立也;不知言,无以知人也。”
(子 曰: “Not knowing Heaven’s will [fate], one cannot be a 君 子. Not knowing 禮, one cannot find a place in society. Not knowing the subtleties in dialog [conversation], one cannot know the personalities of others.)

Re: 《論 語》 Confucius --- the Analects: A new translation

PostPosted: Wed Mar 12, 2014 8:37 pm
by Tienzen
Epilogue:

論 語 (Confucius --- the Analects), a new Translation

Confucianism was and still is the backbone of Chinese culture. The 論 語 (Confucius --- the Analects) is the nutshell of the Confucianism. Yet, 100% of middle school Chinese language teachers both in China and in Taiwan does not read 論 語 in its entirety, and they cannot understand 50% of the book as they no longer understand the Chinese language at that level.


Before 1920s, 85% of population in China were illiterate, but those 15% were able to understand the entire ‘scope’ of Chinese language. Today, Chinese government claimed that 85% of population in China are now literate (able to read and write on the street talk level, no more classic canons). Yet, 99.99% of this literate population cannot understand 論 語 by reading even with the help of dictionary. That is, with the 1920s standard, the illiterate rate on Chinese language is now 99.999%.論 語 is only about 1/20 the length of Bible. While many Westerners did read Bible in its entirety and have no problem of understand its language, it is truly a shame that 99.99% of Chinese population cannot understand the language of 論 語, let alone to appreciate its essence and its spirits. This shameful situation was brought by the May 4th movement, led by 胡 適、 陈 獨 秀、 鲁 迅、 钱 玄 同 in 1919.


胡 適 brought up the slogan ‘打 孔 家 店 [“Smash the Confucius’ flea market (swap meet) "]’; then it became a new cultural movement (see, http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%96%B0% ... 0%E5%8A%A8 ). In addition to outcaste the Confucianism as the malignant tumor in Chinese culture, it killed the Chinese language proper, and everything which remains is the ‘street talk’ language.


Thus, I have two missions for translating the 論 語.
a. Allowing the Westerners to read and to understand the nutshell of Confucianism.
b. Allowing the Chinese to read and to understand 論 語, as there is not much chance for them to understand it with their Chinese language. The English translation will help them to jump over that great canyon. At the same time, it will provide them a chance to learn that great language.


Now, after you have read 論 語 in its entirety, we can make a quick summary about what it is. It is a book of ‘Chinese Morality’ in Confucianism, and it is very simple and straight forward.

The source of the morality is 天 命 (the Heaven’s will) which is often described as 道 (the governing laws in accordance to the Heaven’s will, but the word 道 is also used in many other contexts in 論 語). The manifestation of this 天 命 道 is 仁 [which describes a system of 二 人 (two men)]. In a two men system, one must respect and care for other’s human rights and wellbeing, and this is the moral obligation and responsibility of everyone in any 仁 system. Then, there is a word 衣 (clothes) which is 亠 (denote as Heaven) over three 人, that is, when there are three persons under the Heaven, one must wear 衣 [the clothes while two persons (man and woman) could go naked]. Thus, the way of implementing 仁 is with a system of 禮 while 樂 is an auxiliary device for 禮. 禮 describes a set of rules for implementing the 仁 system. In this set of rules are 孝, 忠, 義, 信. The one who lives his life in accordance to this 仁/禮 system is called as 君 子, otherwise is 小 人. The litmus tests for distinguishing 君 子 and 小 人 is 廉 and 耻. The one who has 廉 and 耻 is a 君 子, otherwise 小 人. Yet, the way to gain 廉 and 耻 and the knowledge of 天 命 道 is by 學 (learning). Thus, 學 is the Chapter one of the book.


Then, what is the purpose for being a 君 子? 論 語 spends about half of the entire book discussing about this issue. Basically, there are two tasks (or missions) for every 君 子.
a. Task one --- As a moral ‘individual’ in accordance to the 天 命 道 (the Way of Heaven’s Will).
b. Task two --- To help others to live also in accordance to the 天 命 道. This task can only be achieved by entering the public service.


In 論 語, Confucius took almost 1/4 of the entire book emphasizing that the task two has higher value than the task one, such as in the issues of 為 政 (into public service; Chapter 2:1 & 21, Chapter 12:19, Chapter 13:3, etc.) and of 辟 世 (be a hermit, Chapter 14:39; Chapter 14:40, 子 路 宿 于 石 門; Chapter 14:41, 子 擊 磬 于 衛; etc.).



In 論 語, it discussed very little about its metaphysics, the 性 (human nature) and Yijing. There are ‘only’ two lines about 性 (Chapter 9:14, 夫 子 之 言 性 與 天 道; and Chapter 17:2, 性 相 近 也). And, there is only one line about Yijing (Chapter 7 :16, 五 十 以 學 易). In the twenty some years (since 50 years old to the end of his life), Confucius studied Yijing every day, carrying the Yijing everywhere he goes. He said, 述而不作 (Chapter 7), teaching and editing while not creating anything new. He basically followed this description. He did write ‘春秋’(a commentary for a period of history), but it is not a new philosophy or a new metaphysics. He also did write ‘十翼’ (ten commentary on Yijing), and again, they are comments, not anything anew. It is truly a surprise that there is no more discussions on Yijing in 論 語. This points two points.
1. Confucius placed very high standard on himself. When he was not 100% certain, he will not teach others, see Chapter 9:14).
2. Confucius did not believe that he did understand the Yijing 100%, although he was the only one who wrote 十 翼 on Yijing. And, if without it, no one can understand Yijing today. Yet, Confucius was honest. The Yijing system did not make 100% sense to him as both the Yijing’s creators (伏 羲, 文 王 and 周 公) and Confucius did not have chance to understand that system fully, because the knowledge which is needed to make it meaningful was not available then. If readers are interested in this issue, you can visit chinese-culture/about-yijing-the-general-discussions-t10.html .

As Confucius did not understand Yijing 100%, he did not talk about Yijing in 論 語 directly. Yet, the entire 論 語 was still based on whatever he did understand about Yijing. And, I will point this out in a new book “《易 德》(Virtues of Yijing) 與 論 語”.

Then, 論 語 also shows the following important points.
i. 因 材 施 教 (teaching every student differently according to their talents) --- Thus, we see one issue (such as, 仁 or 孝) was described in different ways to different students.
ii. 身 教 合 一 (teaching others while he lives his life exactly in accordance to his teaching) --- almost the entire Chapter 10 is devoted to show this point.
iii. The idea society --- a society is governed in accordance to 天 命 道, the 仁. And, this is the nutshell of the entire book.
iv. The word ‘文’ is repeated 43 times, and it carries three kinds of meaning, a) as literacy, literatures or documents, b) as antonym of ‘essence’, that is, superficial or decorative, c) as someone’ name. The following is the list of saying on 文 in 論 語 about the literacy.
Chapter 1:6
Chapter 3:9
Chapter 3:14
Chapter 5:14
Chapter 5:16
Chapter 6:15
Chapter 6:24
Chapter 7:24
Chapter 7:31
Chapter 8:19
Chapter 9:5
Chapter 9:10
Chapter 11:2
Chapter 12:8
Chapter 12:15
Chapter 12:24
Chapter 14:13
Chapter 14:19
Chapter 15:25
Chapter 16:1
Chapter 19:8
Chapter 19:22
Thus, in addition to the moral cultivation, Confucius was putting the literacy on a very high priority (next to the moral learning). Thus, there is another important mission for this translation, to show the basic of Chinese language grammar. From the English translations, we can see that the Chinese language grammar is a different species from the English language. Thus, the current teaching of Chinese grammar in China is completely nonsense, totally wrong. More details on this is available at chinese-idioms/part-three-the-new-chinese-etymology-t229.html . If reader can read in Chinese, there is more info at chinese-idioms/topic-t228.html .



Conclusion:
論 語 is a book of Morality, super superbly simple, a truly no brainer. Thus, it became and still is the guiding book for the entire Chinese culture. It has only the following simple points.

One: Foundation: 天 命 (Heaven’s will) which operates with four additional steps: 道 (the governing laws in accordance to the Heaven’s will), 氣 (the mechanism which implements the 道), 數 (the quantity or amount which can be used in implementation), 人 命 (the fate or destiny of an individual). This is the Confucianism theology, see http://www.chinese-word-roots.org/Confuciu.htm details.

Two: the nutshell, 仁; with the above foundation, the entire Confucianism is only about one word ‘仁’. Then, the content of this word encompasses four moral pillars {孝, 忠, 義, 信}.

Three: the implementation; 禮 together with 樂 is the way of implementing those four moral pillars {孝, 忠, 義, 信}.

Four: the litmus tests: 廉 and 耻. Then, two types of people are identified; 君 子 (who passed the tests), 小 人 (who failed the tests).

Five: the pathways; 學 (learning, repeated 66 times), 知 (knowledge, wisdom, repeated 117 times), 文 (literacy, literature) and 朋 友 (friends, 7-朋, 25-友).

Six: the final goal; to create an idea society; 邦 有 道 (a society in accordance to the 天 命 道, repeated 7 times) by serving the public (仕, repeated 8 times).





In addition to let the Westerner understand the true Confucianism, the major mission of this translation is to teach native Chinese about the Chinese written language grammar.


Before 1930s, 85% population in China was illiterate. Now, the illiterate rate is claimed below 15% of the current population. Yet, the students of 1930s in China could recite the entire books of 論 語 and 诗 (book of poem) before the age 10, and it would take about 10 more years for them to understand the grammatical structure of their sentences. This fact was viewed as ‘stupid’ for those May 4th scholars, and both 論 語 and 诗 were dropped as the backbone of curriculum in China.


诗 (book of peom) is a bit too difficult for the modern readers now, but 論 語 (Confucius --- the Analects) was a ‘verbal’ language of the educated. If we use it as the litmus test, 100% of those literate people in 1930s (15% of the population) were able to read it without any difficulty. Today, 99.99% of this so called literate people (85% of the current population) has no ability to understand half of that book. Thus, using the 論 語 as the litmus test for the Chinese written language, today only 0.85% (less than 1%) Chinese current population is literate on Chinese written language.


In addition to as the backbone philosophy and metaphysics of Confucianism, 論 語 is truly the base for Chinese language, especially for the Chinese grammar. Again, it is only a base, a base (a verbal type of structure), not an elaborated fine structures (such as, 尚 書, 詩 經, 騷 賦, 駢 文, ... etc.). Without the ability of understanding the 論 語’s sentence structures (the lowest base), one cannot claim that he understands the Chinese language, as there is no chance for him to understand any elaborated Chinese sentence structures. The current street talking Chinese was viewed as ‘illiterate’ on Chinese language before 1930s.


If the entire curriculum for our students is about the ‘illiterate’ Chinese language, it will be fine. But, we should let them know what they are learning. After 10 years of hard learning, that all they get is the ‘illiterate’ Chinese language. There is a Western proverb, “One language, one soul”. But, sorry, after learned the ‘illiterate’ Chinese language with your life-effort, you can still not gain Chinese soul, as the true Chinese language is still way over your head.


If all our Western students learn only the ‘illiterate’ part of Chinese language, they will never know the greatness of Chinese language and can easily look down upon Chinese as the Chinese language is such an inferior language (even to the point being stupid).


I have translated 論 語 (Confucius --- the Analects) and now this book (Yijing and the Analects) into English for two reasons.
First, it is obviously for the one whose mother language is not Chinese.
Second, the key reason is for the native Chinese people, as they have no way of understanding the 論 語 and 易 經 (Yijing) with their level of Chinese language, not even with the help of a current Chinese dictionary. Yet, the English translation will help them to understand the meaning of those ‘Chinese sentences’, by using an English dictionary. And, hopefully, they can begin to learn some ‘true’ Chinese grammar. If one of you is a native Chinese, you should try to read the 論 語 in its ‘entirety’ [99% of you did not] and try to find out what % of the book that you can truly understand.


The 易 經 (Yijing) is also a very important book for both Chinese etymology and Chinese grammar, my new book “易經與論語 ---- Yijing and Confucius the Analects” is available at (chinese-idioms/yijing-and-confucius-the-analects-t2063.html ). And, the pdf file is available at http://www.chinese-word-roots.org/Yijing-analects.pdf


The entire English translation of 論 語 is available at chinese-idioms/confucius-the-analects-a-new-translation-t2062.html . Its pdf file is available at http://www.chinese-word-roots.org/Confu ... alects.pdf .